Several studies have been conducted on collision avoidance (CA) and path planning for maritime autonomous surface ships (MASS) based on artificial potential field (APF) and electronic navigation chart (ENC) data. However, to date, accurate, highly efficient, and automatic modelling of complicated geometry environment potential fields (EPFs) has not been realised. In this study, an accurate EPF model is established using ENC data to describe different types of obstacles, navigable areas, and non-navigable areas. The implicit equations of complex polygons are constructed based on the R-function theory, and the discrete-convex hull method is introduced to realise the automatic modelling of EPF. Moreover, collaborative CA and obstacle avoidance (OA) experiments are designed and conducted in a simulated environment and based on the ENC data. The results show that the proposed EPF modelling method is accurate, reliable, and time-efficient even with numerous ENC data and complex shapes owing to the R-function representation for geometric objects and discrete-convex hull method. The combination of improved APF and EPF models is proven to be effective for CA and OA. This paper presents a practical EPF modelling approach for APF-based ship path planning.