To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There are substantial knowledge gaps, practice variation, and paucity of controlled trials owing to the relatively small number of patients with critical heart disease. The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society has recognised this knowledge gap as an area needing a more comprehensive and evidence-based approach to the management of the critically ill child with heart disease. To address this, the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society created a scientific statements and white papers committee. Scientific statements and white papers will present the current state-of-the-art in areas where controversy exists, providing clinicians with guidance in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, particularly where evidence-based data are lacking. This paper provides a template for other societies and organisations faced with the task of developing scientific statements and white papers. We describe the methods used to perform a systematic literature search and evidence rating that will be used by all scientific statements and white papers emerging from the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society aims to revolutionise the care of children with heart disease by shifting our efforts from individual institution-based practices to national standardised protocols and to lay the ground work for multicentre high-impact research directions.
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be defined as the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the support of patients who do not respond to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Data from national and international paediatric databases indicate that the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is increasing. Guidelines from the American Heart Association suggest that any patient with refractory cardiopulmonary resuscitation and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest is a candidate for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. One possible framework for selection of patients for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation includes dividing patients on the basis of favourable or unfavourable characteristics. Favourable characteristics include cardiac disease, witnessed event in the intensive care unit, ability to deliver effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, active patient monitoring present, favourable arterial blood gases, and early institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Unfavourable characteristics potentially include non-cardiac disease, an unwitnessed cardiac arrest, ineffective cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and severely acidotic arterial blood gases. Considering the significant resources and cost involved in the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, its use needs to be critically examined to improve outcomes, assess neurological recovery and quality of life, and help identify populations and other factors that may help guide in the selection of patients for successful extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants and children with cardiac disease who develop refractory cardiogenic shock, cyanosis, or cardiac arrest is increasing. Early mortality in children with cardiac disease who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remains an important issue, as only 40% of cannulated patients survive to discharge from the hospital. However, it is encouraging that 90% children who are discharged alive from the hospital after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are still alive at intermediate-term follow-up. Surviving patients are at risk for long-term dysfunction of multiple organ systems related to their underlying cardiac disease, non-cardiac comorbidities, treatment-related complications, and exposure to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Among the most important acute complications related to support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is injury to the central nervous system, which may contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. All of these factors, in turn, influence quality of life. Many survivors remain medically complex related to their underlying cardiac disease, comorbidities, and sequelae of complications acquired over their lifetime. Neurological morbidity clearly plays an important role in approximately one-third of survivors, with significant deficits in approximately 10%. The limited data about quality of life data that are available for survivors of cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation suggests that approximately 15–30% of survivors have at least moderately decreased quality of life. Overall, published data support the ongoing use of support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with acute cardiac failure, most of whom would die without it. However, programmatic efforts to improve the selection of patients and the preservation of the function of end organs during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are clearly needed in order to improve long-term outcomes.
The success of extracorporeal support in providing cardiopulmonary support for a variety of patients has led to use of Extracorporeal Life Support, also known as ECLS, as a rescue for patients failing conventional resuscitation. The use of Extracorporeal Life Support in circumstances of cardiac arrest has come to be termed “Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation” or “ECPR”. Although Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation was originally described in patients following repair of congenital cardiac defects who suffered a sudden arrest, it has now been used in a variety of circumstances for patients both with and without primary cardiac disease. Multiple centres have reported successful use of Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in adults and children. However, because of the cost, the complexity of the technique, and the resources required, Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is not offered in all centres for paediatric patients with refractory cardiac arrest. The increasing success and availability of Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in post-operative cardiac patients, coupled with the fact that patients undergoing the Norwood (Stage 1) operation can have rapid, unpredictable cardiac deterioration and arrest, has led to a steady increase in the use of Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in this population. For Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to be most successful, it must be deployed rapidly while the patient is undergoing excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Early activation of the team that will perform cannulation could possibly shorten the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and might improve survival and outcome. More research needs to be done to refine the populations and circumstances that offer the best outcome with Extracorporeal Life Support during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, to evaluate the ratios of cost to benefit, and establish the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in survivors.
The roles played by spatially anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions, chromophore shape, host dielectric constant, and poling field strength in defining maximum achievable electro-optic activity for electrically poled chromophore/polymer materials are investigated by equilibrium and Monte-Carlo quantum statistical mechanical calculations. Even simple Hamiltonians reproduce critical qualitative features such as the existence of a maximum in plots of electro-optic activity versus chromophore number density in a polymer matrix. Comparison of theoretical results for various methods provides a useful check on the validity of approximations employed with individual methods. The most significant conclusion to derive from a comparison of experimental and theoretical results is the dependence of maximum achievable electro-optic activity upon chromophore shape. Theoretical calculations suggest a new paradigm for the design of optimum electro-optic chromophores; realization of the desired shapes may be facilitated by dendritic synthetic approaches. In the presence of intermolecular electrostatic interactions, the dependence of electro-optic activity upon material dielectric permittivity and electric poling field strength is more complex than in the absence of such interactions. Of particularly, interest are conditions that lead to second order phase transitions to lattices containing centrically (antiferroelectricallly) ordered chromophore domains. Such phase transitions can lead to further complications in the attempted preparation of device quality materials but can be effectively avoided by utilization of theoretically derived phase diagrams.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.