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Automated virtual reality therapies are being developed to increase access to psychological interventions. We assessed the experience with one such therapy of patients diagnosed with psychosis, including satisfaction, side effects, and positive experiences of access to the technology. We tested whether side effects affected therapy.
In a clinical trial 122 patients diagnosed with psychosis completed baseline measures of psychiatric symptoms, received gameChange VR therapy, and then completed a satisfaction questionnaire, the Oxford-VR Side Effects Checklist, and outcome measures.
79 (65.8%) patients were very satisfied with VR therapy, 37 (30.8%) were mostly satisfied, 3 (2.5%) were indifferent/mildly dissatisfied, and 1 (0.8%) person was quite dissatisfied. The most common side effects were: difficulties concentrating because of thinking about what might be happening in the room (n = 17, 14.2%); lasting headache (n = 10, 8.3%); and the headset causing feelings of panic (n = 9, 7.4%). Side effects formed three factors: difficulties concentrating when wearing a headset, feelings of panic using VR, and worries following VR. The occurrence of side effects was not associated with number of VR sessions, therapy outcomes, or psychiatric symptoms. Difficulties concentrating in VR were associated with slightly lower satisfaction. VR therapy provision and engagement made patients feel: proud (n = 99, 81.8%); valued (n = 97, 80.2%); and optimistic (n = 96, 79.3%).
Patients with psychosis were generally very positive towards the VR therapy, valued having the opportunity to try the technology, and experienced few adverse effects. Side effects did not significantly impact VR therapy. Patient experience of VR is likely to facilitate widespread adoption.
This book set out with several aims. It sought to show the extent to which the British monarchy and British monarchism mattered during the First World War. Monarchism was not unimportant or mere rhetoric; the monarch was not a token figurehead. In fact, it was one of the central British belief systems of the age. More broadly, throughout Europe and its empires monarchism, like socialism or communism or liberalism, was a significant ideology in the public sphere. This book has also aimed to contextualise monarchism as a historically contingent phenomenon, manifesting in different ways in specific historical moments. First World War monarchism, it has shown, merits being assessed not only as a political framework but also as a distinct belief system which existed during the war period and its aftermath.
This chapter examines the relationship between King George V and his troops during the First World War and monarchist culture in the British army. It assesses the impact of the king’s visits to the front and their propaganda depiction as well as looking at the meaning of soldiers’ oath of allegiance to the monarch.
This chapter analyses the ways that the royal family embodied wartime gender roles and promoted them. It considers the role of the monarchy in creating new narratives around war disability and the monarchy’s engagement with the war wounded. It also looks at Queen Mary’s visit to the front in 1917 and the wartime role of Princess Mary. It argues that the war saw new cultural discourses of the royal ‘touch’ and of the ‘perfect’ royal body emerging.
This chapter examines the political power of the British monarchy during the July Crisis (1914) and the First World War. It suggests that David Lloyd George’s attempts to reduce royal power, while important, had a relatively limited impact.
This chapter explores the role that monarchist beliefs played in war recruitment in Britain and in the British Empire. It looks at the ways that monarchist beliefs appeared in wartime propaganda, songs and recruitment campaigns as well as the monarchy’s importance to British legal and religious cultures. It examines how the first two years of the war saw the monarchy’s position consolidated and sacralised in Britain, arguing that the monarchy was central to British identity and associated with ideals of ‘honour’.
This chapter examines the challenges that the second half of the war presented to the British monarchy’s sacralised status. It examines the impact of anti-monarchist revolution in 1916–22 in Ireland and in 1917–18 in Continental Europe upon the British monarchy and the way that courtiers reacted in response to such challenges and successfully re-sacralised the monarchy by associating it with ‘democracy’. It also examines the reasons why the monarchy’s German origins only became an issue relatively late in the war. Overall it finds very limited levels of wartime anti-monarchism in Britain, in contrast to the situation in Ireland.
This chapter examines how the monarchy was used to symbolise war victory in 1918 and how it was also used to culturally ‘honour’ the war bereaved. It looks at how the monarchy engaged with war grief both within royal circles and among the wider population in Britain.
On 4 August 2014, the United Kingdom marked the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War with three major ceremonies – a service at Glasgow Cathedral to commemorate the Commonwealth contribution to the war effort, a vigil at Westminster Abbey and a moving twilight ceremony at St Symphorien Military Cemetery near Mons in Belgium.
This chapter looks at how the monarchy became central to the British commemoration of the First World War and how this provided it with a long-term role into the interwar period that effectively continued to sacralise it. It examines the impact of the monarchy’s First World War role upon the 1936 abdication crisis.