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We evaluate the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and kidney stones.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary intake information was assessed using first 24-h dietary recall interviews, and the Kidney Conditions were presented by a questionnaire. The primary outcome was to investigate the association between DII and incidence of kidney stones, and the secondary outcome was to assess the association between DII and nephrolithiasis recurrence.
The NHANES, 2007–2016.
The study included 25 984 NHANES participants, whose data on DII and kidney stones were available, of whom 2439 reported a history of kidney stones.
For the primary outcome, after fully multivariate adjustment, DII score is positively associated with the risk of kidney stones (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·10). Then, compared Q4 with Q1, a significant 38 % increased likelihood of nephrolithiasis was observed. (OR = 1·38; 95 % CI 1·19, 1·60). For the secondary outcome, the multivariate regression analysis showed that DII score is positively correlated with nephrolithiasis recurrence (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·15). The results noted that higher DII scores (Q3 and Q4) are positively associated with a significant 48 % and 61 % increased risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence compared with the reference after fully multivariate adjustment (OR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·07, 2·05; OR = 1·61; 95 % CI 1·12, 2·31).
Our findings revealed that increased intake of pro-inflammatory diet, as a higher DII score, is correlated with increased odds of kidney stones incidence and recurrence.
To provide updated information about demographic variations and temporal trends in the prenatal use of multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements in the metropolitan areas of China.
Descriptive analysis of routine prenatal healthcare data between 2013 and 2017.
Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.
A total of 197 346 pregnant women who attended their first prenatal care visit and provided information about MMN supplementation during the periconceptional period.
Of these pregnant women, 60·6 % reported consuming prenatal MMN supplements. In multivariate-adjusted models, there were significant gradients of age, education and parity in prenatal MMN supplementation, with the highest likelihood of MMN use among the oldest, the most highly educated and nulliparous women (Pfor trend < 0·001). Compared with that among unemployed women, prenatal MMN supplementation was more common among the employed, especially those engaged in business (adjusted relative risks (95 % CI): 1·08 (1·06, 1·10)) and management (1·10 (1·08, 1·12)). The proportion of prenatal MMN supplementation was 57·0 % in 2013, which increased to 63·5 % in 2017 (Pfor trend < 0·001). The trends varied by age, education and parity (Pfor heterogeneity < 0·001), whereas no significant difference was observed in trends across subgroups of ethnicity or occupation. The greatest magnitude increase in MMN supplement use occurred in women of age < 25 years (annual percent change: 5·7 %), less than high school education (9·6 %), parity ≥ 2 (6·8 %) or unemployment (6·1 %).
Approximately two-thirds of women consumed prenatal MMN supplements during the periconceptional period in the central area of Beijing and the proportion increased over time, indicating a need to evaluate the effectiveness and safety and to develop a guideline for relatively well-nourished women.
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