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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) show similar efficacy as treatments for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and stress-related disorders. Hence, comparisons of adverse event rates across medications are an essential component of clinical decision-making. We aimed to compare patterns of adverse events associated with SSRIs and SNRIs in the treatment of children and adults diagnosed with these disorders through a network meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane, websites of regulatory agencies, and international registers from inception to 09 September 2022, for randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of SSRIs or SNRIs. We analyzed the proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event and incidence rates of 17 specific adverse events. We estimated incidence rates and odds ratios through network meta-analysis with random effects and three-level models. We analyzed 799 outcome measures from 80 studies (n = 21 338). Participants in medication groups presented higher rates of adverse events (80.22%, 95% CI 76.13–83.76) when compared to placebo groups (71.21%, 67.00–75.09). Nausea was the most common adverse event (25.71%, CI 23.96–27.54), while weight change was the least common (3.56%, 1.68–7.37). We found higher rates of adverse events of medications over placebo for most medications, except sertraline and fluoxetine. We found significant differences between medications for overall tolerability and for autonomic, gastrointestinal, and sleep-related symptoms. Adverse events are a common reason that patients discontinue SSRIs and SNRIs. Results presented here guide clinical decision-making when clinicians weigh one medication over another. This might improve treatment acceptability and compliance.
Previous work showed traumatic life events (TLE) with intention to harm, like bullying and abuse, to be more strongly associated with psychotic experiences (PE) than other types of trauma, like accidents. However, this association is subject to reporting bias and can be confounded by demographic characteristics and by differences in dose of exposure across different trauma categories. We studied the association between TLE with and without intention to harm and PE, taking into account potential confounders and biases.
A total of 2245 children and adolescents aged 6–14 years were interviewed by psychologists. The interview included the presence of 20 PE (both self-report and psychologist evaluation). In addition, parents provided information on child exposure to trauma, mental health and PE.
Results showed no significant association between TLE without intention to harm only and PE for the three methods of assessment of PE (self-report, parent report and psychologist rating). On the other hand, there was a positive association between PE and TLE in groups exposed to traumatic experiences with intention to harm (with intention to harm only and with and without intention to harm). Results remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical confounders, but this positive association was no longer significant after adjusting for the number of TLE.
TLE with intention to harm display a stronger association with PE than TLE without intention to harm, and this difference is likely reducible to a greater level of traumatic exposure associated with TLE with intention to harm.
Background: Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is established as a first line treatment for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, there is little evidence about the effectiveness of CBT protocols in cases identified in the community in low and middle income countries (LaMICs). Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of group CBT protocol for youths with anxiety disorders identified in a community sample in LaMICs. Method: A total of 14 sessions of group CBT for youths and 2 concurrent sessions for parents based on Kendall's Coping Cat program were offered. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional community study; 45 subjects fulfilled inclusion criteria and 28 agreed to participate in the open clinical trial. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated with standard clinical, self- and parent-rated measures of anxiety, depression, externalizing symptoms and quality of life (QoL). Results: Twenty youths completed the protocol. All scales showed an improvement of anxiety and reduction in externalizing symptoms over time, with a moderate to large effect size (d = 0.59 to 2.06; p < .05), but not in depressive symptoms or QoL. Conclusions: Consistent with previous evidence, group CBT is effective in treating anxiety disorders in youths. Results encourage further randomized clinical trials using CBT protocols adapted and developed to be used in LaMICs.