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After achieving significant research results on laser-driven boron fusion, the essential facts are presented how the classical very low-energy gains of the initially known thermal ignition conditions for fusion of hydrogen (H) with the boron isotope 11 (HB11 fusion) were bridged by nine orders of magnitudes in agreement with experiments. This is possible under extreme non-thermal equilibrium conditions for ignition by >10 PW-ps laser pulses of extreme power and nonlinear conditions. This low-temperature clean and low-cost fusion energy generation is in crucial contrast to local thermal equilibrium conditions with the advantage to avoid the difficulties of the usual problems with extremely high temperatures.
Exceptionally high reaction gains of hydrogen protons measured with the boron isotope 11 are compared with other fusion reactions. This is leading to the conclusion that secondary avalanche reactions are happening and confirming the results of high-gain, neutron-free, clean, safe, low-cost, and long-term available energy. The essential basis is the unusual non-thermal block-ignition scheme with picosecond laser pulses of extremely high powers above the petawatt range.
The hot spot heating process by an assumed deuteron beam is evaluated in order to estimate the contribution of the energy produced by the deuteron beam-target fusion to the heating process. The deuteron beam energy versus the number of deuterons is evaluated through the experimentally achieved proton beam energy distribution using the TRIDENT short pulse laser at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The corresponding hot spot heating is then calculated using this assumed deuteron beam spectrum. The resulting first order heating dynamics is employed in the expanded “bonus” energy calculation, and a 12.73% extra energy from deuteron beam-target fusion was found with the assumed deuteron spectrum when ρrb = 4.5 g/cm2 is considered, where ρ is the fuel density, and rb is the ion beam focusing radius on the target. The results provide further insight into the contribution of the extra heat produced by deuteron beam-target fusion to the hot spot ignition process. A further analysis of how a converter foil using ultra-high-density cluster materials can help to achieve the yield requirements for ignition is presented.
LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30–240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering makes retrospective imaging of explosive short-term events possible. The scientific focus of LOFAR will initially be on four key science projects (KSPs): (i) Detection of the formation of the very first stars and galaxies in the universe during the so-called epoch of reionization by measuring the power spectrum of the neutral hydrogen 21-cm line (Shaver et al. 1999) on the ∼ 5′ scale; (ii) Low-frequency surveys of the sky with of order 108 expected new sources; (iii) All-sky monitoring and detection of transient radio sources such as γ-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and exo-planets (Farrell et al. 2004); and (iv) Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos (Falcke & Gorham 2003) allowing for the first time access to particles beyond 1021 eV (Scholten et al. 2006). Apart from the KSPs open access for smaller projects is also planned. Here we give a brief description of the telescope.
Physics of Inertial Fusion: Beam Plasma Interaction,
Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter, Stafano Atzeni and Jürgen
Meyer-ter-Vehn, Clarendon Press, 2004, 458 pages, ISBN: 0198562640
This book has several remarkable highlights summarized on laser
produced plasmas and particle beam driven fusion energy. In contrast to
the usual books, the nuclear fusion reactions are presented with very
detailed experience, including pycnonuclear reactions, spin polarization,
and mentioning the 25 orders of magnitude less probable weak force
pp-reaction than DT. There is a rather comprehensive collection of the
conditions of confinement, spherical implosion, ignition burn, and gain.
Hydrodynamics is based on a one fluid model, not Schlüter's
space charge quasi-neutral two-fluid model nor the genuine two-fluid
treatment. Hohlraum targets are covered and the fast ignition (FI)
contains the forte of the authors' own achievements though the entire
problems shown experimentally or theoretically (Mulser
et al., 2004) are not discussed nor the new aspects on FI
known before finishing the book (Hora, 2004).
The 36 pages for the entire physics of (laser- and particle-) beam-target
interaction are used to sketch at least the most important aspects.
Studies of single-event laser-target interaction for fusion reaction
schemes leading to volume ignition are discussed. Conditions were explored
where single-event ns-laser pulses give rise to temperatures sufficient
for volume ignition. Thus, ignition is possible, particularly if X-ray
reabsorption is sufficiently high. Unfortunately, this scheme requires
laser pulses with energies above 5 MJ and target densities of compressed
DT above 1000 g/cm−3. Both requirements are quite
demanding for near term systems. Nevertheless the present state technology
and the detailed knowledge about volume ignition at direct drive are a
basis. Systems as NIF or LMJ can well confirm these physics-clarified
conditions and the technology for large laser systems with sufficient
repetition rate and for a drastic reduction of the size and costs is
necessary and possible and by physics similar to the known reductions in
I deeply regret stepping down from the position as Editor-in-Chief
of Laser and Particle Beams (LPB), but this has become necessary
as my other professional responsibilities have changed.
Fortunately, Dieter Hoffmann is an ideal replacement who will
provide the leadership needed to maintain the quality and continue
the growth of LPB. I am confident that, under his direction,
the journal will continue to serve the scientific community
as a leading vehicle to exchange and archive forefront research
results.The success of LPB to this point has been due to the
work and contributions of many people. I learned much from Heinz
Hora, the founding editor of LPB, during the 4 year overlap
period when I served as Managing Editor. He continued to provide
much help and advice after I took over in 1992. The Associate
Editors and the Editorial Board have also played an instrumental
role in the Journal's operations, ranging from advice about
editorial policies to helping with special issues and with Guest
Editors. The many authors who have submitted such outstanding
manuscripts over the years are, of course, the fundamental reason
the journal is so well received in the community. The various
reviewers who have given so much time to their work have been
integral to maintaining the journal quality. Last, but not least,
thanks goes to the Cambridge University Press staff who have
so ably handled the proofing, printing and circulation of the
By this time, we trust that you have received issues
from Volume 18 of Laser and Particle Beams which used
the new, large-page size, double-column format. As I indicated
in an earlier preface, this format provides additional type-space,
which will hopefully allow us to speed up publication of articles
The editorial staff of Laser and Particle Beams
(LPB) is pleased to continue in this issue the
most successful tradition of publication of full papers
from the internationally recognized conference series,
the European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter
(ECLIM). Not all presentations at the conference
are included, but a large portion of them are, based on
the authors' willingness to submit the manuscripts
for peer review.