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An intermediate-depth (1751 m) ice core was drilled at the South Pole between 2014 and 2016 using the newly designed US Intermediate Depth Drill. The South Pole ice core is the highest-resolution interior East Antarctic ice core record that extends into the glacial period. The methods used at the South Pole to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility (NSF-ICF), and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NSF-ICF are described. The South Pole ice core exhibited minimal brittle ice, which was likely due to site characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to drill technology and core handling procedures.
This study tests novel methods for automatically identifying annual layers in a shallow Antarctic ice core (WDC05Q) using images that were collected with an optical scanner at the US National Ice Core Laboratory. A new method of optimized variance maximization (OVM) modeled the density-related changes in annual layer thickness directly from image variance. This was done by using multi-objective complex (MOCOM) parameter optimization to drive a low-pass filtering scheme. The OVM-derived changes in annual layer thickness corresponded well with the results of an independent glaciochemical interpretation of the core. Individual annual cycles in image brightness were then identified by using OVM results to apply a depth-varying low-pass filter and fitting a second-order polynomial to a locally detrended neighborhood. The resulting map of annual cycles agreed to within 1% of the overall annual count of the glaciochemical interpretation. Agreement on the presence of specific annual layer features was 96%. It was also shown that the MOCOM parameter optimization could calibrate the image-based results to match directly the date of a specific volcanic marker.
On 1 December 2011 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core project reached its final depth of 3405 m. The WAIS Divide ice core is not only the longest US ice core to date, but is also the highest-quality deep ice core, including ice from the brittle ice zone, that the US has ever recovered. The methods used at WAIS Divide to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the US National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NICL are described and discussed.
One of the fascinations of the study of the Gothic bible is that it is almost the only literary monument of a race which played so great a part in laying the foundations on which modern Europe eventually arose.
The historian Jordanes relates a popular tradition of about the middle of the sixth century according to which the Goths, leaving Scandza, i.e. the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, with a king at their head, arrived by sea at the Vistula delta. One of their branches, the Gepidae who established themselves there a little later, gave the name of Gepidoios to the islands situated at the river mouth. The Goths conquered and dispersed the inhabitants of the coast and also subdued the Vandals who were already established there; and according to Tacitus (Germania 43) and Ptolemy (Geographia 3. 5.20), they remained on the lower Vistula until the middle of the second century A.D.
A new migration took the Goths by stages across the Pripet marshes towards the steppes of the Ukraine and as far as the Black Sea, where their presence is noted in 238. They are then found in Moesia and in Thrace, in contact, and often at war, with the Romans. Finally, certain Goths established themselves within the borders of the empire, north of the Danube and in Dacia (257), while others became mercenaries in the Roman army.
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