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Background: Hoarding is associated with significant impairment. Although traditionally considered as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), some authors have proposed that pathological hoarding could be considered as a stand alone condition. The prevalence of pathological hoarding behaviour has been shown to be high in some countries, but little is known about the prevalence and correlates of hoarding in the non-clinical population in Italy. Method: We studied the prevalence of self-reported hoarding behaviour using the Italian version of the Saving Inventory-Revised, as well as the association between hoarding and various clinical correlates, including obsessive-compulsive symptoms, compulsive buying, anxiety, and depression. Results: The prevalence of pathological hoarding behaviour in two studies was between 3.7 and 6.0%. No differences were found between hoarding and non-hoarding participants with regard to gender, age, marital status, level of education, and employment status. Significant correlations were found between compulsive hoarding and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and also between hoarding and a measure of compulsive buying, even after controlling for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: These results indicate that pathological hoarding may also be prevalent in Italy and highlight the need for further epidemiological studies using validated instruments to assess hoarding disorder.
Background: The Vancouver Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (VOCI) is a self-report measure of the severity of obsessive-compulsive problems such as contamination, checking, obsessions, hoarding, needing things to be just right, and indecisiveness. In the seminal paper a six-correlated-factor structure was found in a sample of OC patients, but the issue of the factor structure of the VOCI in non-clinical populations was not addressed. Aim: This study assesses the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Italian version of the VOCI in a non-clinical sample. Method: The VOCI was administered to a large community sample (n = 445). Some participants also completed a battery including measures of OC behaviour, worry, anxiety and depression (n = 89) and were administered the VOCI twice at an 8-week interval (n = 46). Results: Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the six-correlated-factor structure originally found in a patient sample, but a more parsimonious, second-order-factor model showed a statistically higher fit, suggesting that VOCI subscales can be considered as facets of a higher-order OCD factor. The whole item pool and each of the subscales showed good internal consistency, unidimensionality, test-retest reliability and convergent construct validity. As in the original version, limited support for discriminant validity was found. Scores were weakly associated with age, gender and education. Conclusions: Although some key issues still need to be investigated (e.g. sensitivity to change), the VOCI seems to be a psychometrically sound instrument for the assessment of OCD-related behaviours and thoughts and can be used in cultural contexts different from the original.
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