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Francisco C. de la Chesnaye, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW (6207J) Washington, DC 20460, USA,
Casey Delhotal, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Ave.; NW (6207J), Washington, DC 20460, USA,
Benjamin DeAngelo, Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory Starr Building, MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA,
Deborah Ottinger-Schaefer, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW (6207J) Washington, DC 20460, USA,
Dave Godwin, Stratospheric Protection Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW (6205J) Washington, DC 20460 USA
“Other greenhouse gases” (OGHGs) and “non-CO2 greenhouse gases” (NCGGs): these are terms that are now much more familiar to the climate modeling community than they were a decade ago. Much of the increased analytical relevance of these gases, which include methane, nitrous oxide, and a group of fluorinated compounds, is due to work conducted under the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) and facilitated by meetings at Snowmass, Colorado, going back to 1998.
The two principal insights from over five years of analysis on NCGGs are (1) the range of economic sectors from which these emissions originate is far larger and more diverse than for carbon dioxide (CO2); and (2) the mitigation costs for these sectors and their associated gases can be lower than for energy-related CO2. Taken together, these two factors result in a larger portfolio of potential mitigation options, and thus more potential for reduced costs, for a given climate policy objective. This is especially important where carbon dioxide is not the dominant gas, on a percentage basis, for a particular economic sector and even for a particular region.
This paper provides an analytical history of non-CO2 work and also lays out promising new areas of further research. There are five sections following this introduction. Section 22.2 provides a summary of non-CO2 gases and important economic sectors. Section 22.3 covers early efforts to estimate non-CO2 emissions and mitigation potential. Section 22.5 covers recent work focusing on mitigation.
Bringing together many of the world's leading experts, this volume is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of climate change science, impacts, mitigation, adaptation, and policy. It provides an integrated assessment of research on the key topics that underlie current controversial policy questions. The first part of the book addresses recent topics and findings related to the physical-biological earth system. The next part of the book surveys estimates of the impacts of climate change for different sectors and regions. The third part examines current topics related to mitigation of greenhouse gases and explores the potential roles of various technological options. The last part focuses on policy design under uncertainty. Dealing with the scientific, economic and policy questions at the forefront of the climate change issue, this book will be invaluable for graduate students, researchers and policymakers interested in all aspects of climate change and the issues that surround it.