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This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.
This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on environmental impacts. Specifically, we focus on water management and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the United States is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future. The cutting-edge of industry water management practices gives a picture of how this transition is unfolding, although much opportunity remains to minimize water use and related environmental impacts. The role of natural gas to mitigate climate forcing is less clear. While natural gas has low CO2 emissions upon direct use, methane leakage and long term climate effects lead to the conclusion that increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections, and that other zero or low carbon energy sources will be needed to limit GHG concentrations. We conclude with some possible avenues for further work.
Clozapine can cause reversible agranulocytosis and neutropenia. This study documents the occurrence of blood dyscrasias and identifies predisposing risk factors.
An analysis was made of the haematological, demographic, and dosage data from a central database on 6316 patients receiving clozapine over four and a half years in the UK and Ireland.
During the study period 2.9% of the patients developed neutropenia and 0.8% developed agranulocytosis. The peak incidence of both disorders was in the first 6–18 weeks of treatment. Fatal agranulocytosis occurred in 0.03% of patients. After the first year of treatment the incidence of agranulocytosis significantly decreased to the order noted with some phenothiazines.
The use of a patient monitoring service kept the haematological risks associated with using clozapine within acceptable limits, particularly in view of the benefits of this medication in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
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