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This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the femoral vessel anatomy as it relates to central venous cannulation. The primary objective of this study was to use bedside ultrasonography to determine the amount of exposed femoral vein at three sites corresponding to surface anatomy of the landmark-based procedure.
This cross-sectional study enrolled a random sample of 180 adult patients presenting to a large urban academic emergency department. Subjects underwent standardized ultrasonography to identify and measure the depth and diameter of the femoral vessels and amount of exposed femoral vein at the level of the inguinal ligament (0 cm) 2 cm and 4 cm below. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine significant relationships between vessel measurements and distance from the inguinal ligament.
The median age was 44.5 (range 19–90) years; 101 patients were male. The mean (± SD) percentage of exposed vein at the inguinal ligament was 83% (± 21). This decreased significantly (p < 0.01) with increasing distance from the inguinal ligament: 65% (± 25) at 2 cm and 56% (± 30) at 4 cm. At every distance away from the inguinal ligament, there were some subjects with no vein exposed.
This study demonstrates significant overlap of the femoral vessels at sites where landmark-based femoral vein cannulation is often attempted. Our results suggest that ultrasound guidance would be beneficial as femoral vein cannulation may be difficult or impossible in certain individuals owing to anatomic variations.
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