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Groundnuts are an important crop for Ugandan smallholders because they are high in protein, resupply nutrients to the soil, and are a storable source of wealth once dried. Adoption of virus-resistant seeds that increase yield and reduce yield variance may improve household food security, but the complex relationship is an empirical question. This article considers the effect of improved groundnut seed on smallholder food security in eastern Uganda. Results indicate that adopters have significantly higher household food security after controlling for observed and unobserved household heterogeneity. The food consumption score index increases more than 15 points with improved seed adoption.
Small research firms developing biotechnology applications often focus on establishing intellectual property rights (IPRs), which can then be sold to more established firms with existing market channels. This paper presents a method for valuing the IPRs for an innovation that lowers product production costs below those associated with the patented process of a monopolist. The application to Glucocerebrosidase enzyme from transgenic tobacco suggests an IPRs value of about $1.75 billion. Despite the innovator's market power, significant surplus gains also accrue to consumers. Further, U.S. antitrust laws that prohibit IPRs acquisition by the current monopolist increase consumer welfare by almost 50%.
In this work, thin films of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-based materials were tested as potential candidates for mid-IR transparent contacts on Te-doped GaSb and Si-doped InAs semiconductor wafers. Since these contacts are devoted to be inserted in Sb-based devices which are generally MBE-grown at ∼450°C, low-temperature fabrication processes were particularly tested with a maximum temperature of annealing of 400°C. 50 nm-thick ITO films were deposited on glass, Te-doped GaSb and Si-doped InAs wafers and resistivity of 8.10−4 Ω.cm combined with ∼80% of transmittance at 2 μm and ohmic contacts with a specific resistance of 3.10−4 Ω.cm2 were obtained. Then, in order to improve these properties in the mid-IR, other ITO-based materials were tested: In doped ZnO (IZO) and Zn doped ITO (ITZO). The first results obtained on these materials show that the insertion of 10% of Zn in classical ITO structure results in a degradation of the electrical properties of the layer without a real impact on its optical transmittance near 2 μm. Concerning IZO, a large improvement of the transmittance in the whole visible-mid-IR wavelength range was observed for annealed samples at a temperature as low as 350°C. However, the electrical resistivity appears very sensible to the temperature of annealing.
The scattering properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) composites are studied and applied to optically addressed devices for the protection against continuous wave laser. The geometry of the device is chosen with respect to its scattering efficiency, linear transmission and response time. The optical limiting performances of this PDLC-based device are measured at 514 nm.
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