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To provide evidence to the link between serotonin (5-HT), energy metabolism, and the human obese phenotype, the present study investigated the binding and function of the platelet 5-HT transporter (SERT), in relation to circulating insulin, leptin, and glycolipid metabolic parameters.
Seventy-four drug-free subjects were recruited on the basis of divergent body mass index (BMIs) (16.5-54.8 Kg/m2). All subjects were tested for their blood glycolipid profile together with platelet [3H]-paroxetine ([3H]-Par) binding and [3H]-5-HT reuptake measurements from April 1st to June 30th, 2019.
The [3H]-Par Bmax (fmol/mg proteins) was progressively reduced with increasing BMIs (P < .001), without changes in affinity. Moreover, Bmax was negatively correlated with BMI, waist/hip circumferences (W/HC), triglycerides (TD), glucose, insulin, and leptin, while positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P < .01). The reduction of 5-HT uptake rate (Vmax, pmol/min/109 platelets) among BMI groups was not statistically significant, but Vmax negatively correlated with leptin and uptake affinity values (P < .05). Besides, [3H]-Par affinity values positively correlated with glycemia and TD, while [3H]-5-HT reuptake affinity with glycemia only (P < .05). Finally, these correlations were specific of obese subjects, while, from multiple linear-regression analysis conducted on all subjects, insulin (P = .006) resulting negatively related to Bmax independently from BMI.
Present findings suggest the presence of a possible alteration of insulin/5-HT/leptin axis in obesity, differentially impinging the density, function, and/or affinity of the platelet SERT, as a result of complex appetite/reward-related interactions between the brain, gut, pancreatic islets, and adipose tissue. Furthermore, they support the foremost cooperation of peptides and 5-HT in maintaining energy homeostasis.
Introduction: Despite the general agreement that normal jealousy is heterogenous, little is known about this specific topic.
Methods: In the present study, we explored the possibility of distinguishing between four subtypes of “normal” jealousy (depressive, anxious, obsessive, and paranoid) amongst a cohort of 500 healthy university students by means of a specifically designed questionnaire, “Questionario della gelosia” (QUEGE). QUEGE is a self-report instrument of 30 items which explores the presence, frequency, and duration of feelings and behaviors related to jealousy. It was devised to investigate four hypothetical psychopathological profiles: depressive, paranoid, obsessive, and anxious.
Results: The factor analysis identified five rather than four clear-cut factors: self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessionality. Women showed statistically significant lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality than men. Younger age (<25 years) was associated with lower self-esteem and higher levels of paranoia and obsessionality, while being single was associated with lower self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality.
Conclusion: The present study provides evidence of the reliability and validity of the QUEGE instrument, which seems to identify the presence of five psychopathological dimensions within the jealousy phenomenon in the general population.
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