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The analysis of multiple population structures (biodemographic, genetic and socio-cultural) and their inter-relations contribute to a deeper understanding of population structure and population dynamics. Genetically, the population structure corresponds to the deviation of random mating conditioned by a limited number of ancestors, by restricted migration in the social or geographic space, or by preference for certain consanguineous unions. Through the isonymic method, surname frequency and distribution across the population can supply quantitative information on the structure of a human population, as they constitute universal socio-cultural variables. Using documentary sources to undertake the Doctrine of Belén’s (Altos de Arica, Chile) historical demography reconstruction between 1763 and 1820, this study identified an indigenous population with stable patronymics. The availability of complete marriage, baptism and death records, low rates of migration and the significant percentage of individuals registered and constantly present in this population favoured the application of the isonymic method. The aim of this work was to use given names and surnames recorded in these documentary sources to reconstruct the population structure and migration pattern of the Doctrine of Belén between 1750 and 1813 through the isonymic method. The results of the study were consistent with the ethno-historical data of this ethnic space, where social cohesion was, in multiple ways, related to the regulation of daily life in colonial Andean societies.
In human populations various flexible, labile and interdependent structures (genetic, demographic, socioeconomic) co-exist, each of which can be organized in an hierarchical order corresponding to administrative entities. The relationship between consanguinity, as estimated by random isonymy (FST), and socioeconomic conditions was analysed at different levels of political and administrative organization in Argentina. From the surnames of 22,666,139 voters from the 2001 electoral roll, FST was estimated for 510 Argentinian departments. Using a principal component analysis, a Socio-Demographic and Economic Indicator (SDEI), summarizing the effect of 22 socioeconomic and demographic variables at the departmental level, was computed. The relationship between departmental FST and SDEI values was analysed for the whole nation and within regions using multiple regression analysis. The FST presented a clinal distribution with the highest values in the north and west of the country, while SDEI expressed the opposite behaviour. A negative and significant correlation was observed between FST and SDEI, accounting for 46% of the variation in consanguinity in Argentina. The strongest correlations of FST with SDEI were observed in the Central, Patagonia and Cuyo regions, i.e. those with the highest values of SDEI and lowest values of FST.
The tertiary sex ratio, as measured by the masculinity index, was examined in four regions of the Province of Jujuy in north-west Argentina over a period from 1869 to 1991. The results showed that inter-regional, as well as age group differences in MI existed which could be related to changing social and economic conditions in this area over the last two centuries.
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