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Domestic violence is a pervasive social problem that has devastating emotional, physical, psychological, and financial costs for individuals, families, and communities. Despite the widespread use of current intervention programmes, recent reviews have demonstrated that these have only a small impact on the reduction of recidivism. In this article, we briefly summarise the features identified in the literature that distinguish domestically violent men from those who do not engage in such behaviours. We then explore the most common interventions used to treat domestic violence offenders and discuss the limitations of these interventions, before outlining the assumptions of the Good Lives Model (GLM), a strength-based approach to the treatment of offenders. We discuss the advantages of using the GLM compared to existing approaches and finally, we consider future directions for the use of the GLM in domestic violence interventions.
The intensely, stifling human quality of the novel is not to be avoided; the novel is sogged with humanity; there is no escaping the uplift or the downpour, nor can they be kept out of criticism. We may hate humanity, but if it is exorcised or even purified the novel wilts; little is left but a bunch of words.
(AN, pp. 15-16)
In the course of his lifetime, Forster wrote six novels, but that simple statement conceals more than it reveals. Those novels were penned during a period of only twenty years in what was a very long life extending over ninety years. Born in 1879, at the height of the late Victorian period, Forster died in 1970 in a post-modern England. The novels themselves cluster in the first two decades of the twentieth century; the first, Where Angels Fear to Tread, appeared in 1905 and the last written, A Passage to India, was published in 1924. One novel, Maurice, was not published until 1971, but, as Forster notes, it was begun in 1913 and finished in 1914. Its subject - homosexuality - determined that it would wait almost half a century before publication made it available to a general readership.
In addition to the fact that his novels cluster into a short period of his life, Forster also penned his ultimate word on the subject, Aspects of the Novel, as a series of lectures delivered in the spring of 1927, published in the same year, and unaltered in subsequent reissues of the volume. Forster's work is helpfully illuminated both by examining that short work on the novel and by recognising his distinctive position as a novelist, bridging the late Victorian and early modern periods.
My title came to me as a way of suggesting immediately both the exciting and the troublesome potentials of collaborations between foreign language and English departments. No one can take Disney's banal lyrics at all seriously, and the tune is both insidious and annoying. So why invoke it in a serious discussion?
In the nineteenth century, middle-class women were writing both within the domestic sphere and about it, shaping through their representations the context that was simultaneously enabling and disabling their own literary efforts. Although their working-class sisters still lacked the leisure and resources that could support sustained literary efforts, bourgeois women enjoyed increasing access to the conditions and means supporting writing and publication. Indeed, writing, along with teaching, presented itself as one of the very few ways to earn money for a respectable woman. Exigency, as well as talent, led many to pick up a pen, and, although they may have chafed at forces that continued to hamper their efforts, they challenged the odds and produced wonderful literature.
If we glance ahead to the early twentieth century to take a retrospective view of the preceding century, we recognize in Virginia Woolf's violent response to that avatar of the home, the ‘Angel in the House’, forces that threatened to cripple a creative writer's talents. The woman writer suffered not only from a lack of privacy and insufficient time for concentration; at the same time her efforts were hampered by an expectation that the household Angel, the middle-class wife and mother, would sublimate all of her needs and desires in the well-being of her family. Woolf claims she had to kill her domestic predecessor to prevent her from stifling her creative energies: ‘My excuse, if I were to be had up in a court of law, would be that I acted in self-defense. Had I not killed her she would have killed me. She would have plucked the heart out of my writing.’
This essay focuses on a central strand of a complex process: the intersection of class and gender ideologies in an icon of Victorian fiction, the “Angel in the House,” who comprises and is constituted by her ideological other, the servant. A wife, the presiding hearth angel of Victorian social myth, actually performed an important and extensive economic function. Prevailing ideology held that the house was a haven, a private domain opposed to the public sphere of commerce; but, in fact, the mistress managed her husband's earnings to acquire social and political status and thus served as a significant adjunct to his commercial endeavors. Several discursive practices coalesced in the 1830s and 1840s to give middle-class women unprecedented power, so that running the bourgeois household became an exercise in class management, a process both inscribed and exposed in the Victorian novel.
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