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Optimal emergent management of traumatic hemorrhagic shock patients requires a better understanding of treatment provided in the prehospital/Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency department (ED) settings.
Described in this research are the initial clinical status, airway management, fluid and blood infusions, and time course of severely-injured hemorrhagic shock patients in the EMS and ED settings from the diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) clinical trial.
Data were analyzed from 17 US trauma centers gathered during a randomized, controlled, single-blinded efficacy trial of a hemoglobin solution (DCLHb) as add-on therapy versus standard therapy.
Among the 98 randomized patients, the mean EMS Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 10.6 (SD = 5.0), the mean EMS revised trauma score (RTS) was 6.3 (SD = 1.9), and the mean injury severity score (ISS) was 31 (SD = 17). Upon arrival to the ED, the GCS was 20% lower (7.8 (SD = 5.3) vs 9.7 (SD = 6.3)) and the RTS was 12% lower (5.3 (SD = 2.0) vs 6.0 (SD = 2.1)) than EMS values in blunt trauma patients (P < .001). By ED disposition, 80% of patients (78/98) were intubated. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) was utilized in 77% (60/78), most often utilizing succinylcholine (65%) and midazolam (50%). The mean crystalloid volume infused was 4.2 L (SD = 3.4 L), 80% of which was infused within the ED. Emergency department blood transfusion occurred in 62% of patients, with an average transfused volume of 1.2 L (SD = 2.0 L). Blunt trauma patients received 2.1 times more total fluids (7.4 L vs 3.5 L, < .001) and 2.4 times more blood (2.4 L vs 1.0 L, P < .001). The mean time of patients taken from injury site to operating room (OR) was 113 minutes (SD = 87 minutes). Twenty-one (30%) of the 70 patients taken to the OR from the ED were sent within 60 minutes of the estimated injury time. Penetrating trauma patients were taken to the OR 52% sooner than blunt trauma patients (72 minutes vs 149 minutes, P < .001).
Both GCS and RTS decreased prior to ED arrival in blunt trauma patients. Intubation was performed using RSI, and crystalloid infusion of three times the estimated blood loss volume (L) and blood transfusion of the estimated blood loss volume (L) were provided in the EMS and ED settings. Surgical intervention for these trauma patients most often occurred more than one hour from the time of injury. Penetrating trauma patients received surgical intervention more rapidly than those with a blunt trauma mechanism.
SloanEP, KoenigsbergM, WeirWB, ClarkJM, O'ConnorR, OlingerM, CydulkaR. Emergency Resuscitation of Patients Enrolled in the US Diaspirin Cross-linked Hemoglobin (DCLHb) Clinical Efficacy Trial. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-8.
The Revised Trauma Score (RTS) has been proposed as an entry criterion to identify patients with mid-range survival probability for traumatic hemorrhagic shock studies.
Determination of which of four RTS strata (1-3.99, 2-4.99, 1-4.99, and 2-5.99) identifies patients with predicted and actual mortality rates near 50% for use as an entry criterion in traumatic hemorrhagic shock clinical trials.
Existing database analysis in which demographic and injury severity data from two prior international Diaspirin Cross-Linked Hemoglobin (DCLHb) clinical trials were used to identify an RTS range that could be an optimal entry criterion in order to find the population of trauma patients with mid-range predicted and actual mortality rates.
Of 208 study patients, the mean age was 37 years, 65% sustained blunt trauma, 49% received DCLHb, and 57% came from the European Union study arm. The mean values were: ISS, 31 (SD = 18); RTS, 5.6 (SD = 1.8); and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), 10.4 (SD = 4.8). The mean TRISS-predicted mortality was 34% and the actual 28-day mortality was 35%. The initially proposed 1-3.99 RTS range (n = 41) had the highest predicted (79%) and actual (71%) mortality rates. The 2-5.99 RTS range (n = 79) had a 62% predicted and 53% actual mortality, and included 76% blunt trauma patients. Removal of GCS <5 patients from this RTS 2-5.99 subgroup caused a 48% further reduction in eligible patients, leaving 41 patients (20% of 208 total patients), 66% of whom sustained a blunt trauma injury. This subgroup had 54% predicted and 49% actual mortality rates. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis found the GCS to be as predictive of mortality as the RTS, both in the total patient population and in the RTS 2-5.99 subgroup.
The use of an RTS 2-5.99 inclusion criterion range identifies a traumatic hemorrhagic shock patient subgroup with predicted and actual mortality that approach the desired 50% rate. The exclusion of GCS <5 from this RTS 2-5.99 subgroup patients yields a smaller, more uniform patient subgroup whose mortality is more likely related to hemorrhagic shock than traumatic brain injury. Future studies should examine whether the RTS or other physiologic criteria such as the GCS score are most useful as traumatic hemorrhagic shock study entry criteria.
Sloan EP, Koenigsberg M, Clark JM, Desai A. The use of the Revised Trauma Score as an entry criterion in traumatic hemorrhagic shock studies: data from the DCLHb clinical trials. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(4):1-15.
The underuse of analgesics, or “oligoanalgesia,” is common in emergency departments (EDs). To improve care we must understand our patients’ pain experiences as well as our clinical practice patterns. To this end, we examined pain etiology, pain management practices and patient satisfaction in 2 urban EDs.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using structured interviews and chart reviews for patients with pain who presented to either of 2 university-affiliated EDs. We assessed pain etiologies, patient pain experiences, pain management practices, and patient satisfaction with pain management.
The 525 study subjects reported high pain intensity levels on presentation, with a median rating of 8 on a 10-point numerical rating scale (NRS). At discharge, pain severity had decreased to a median rating of 4; however, 48% of patients were discharged from the ED in moderate to severe pain (NRS 5–10). Subjects reported spending 57% of their ED stay in moderate to severe pain. Analgesics were administered to only 50% of patients. The mean time to analgesic administration was almost 2 hours. Despite high levels of reported pain at discharge and low rates of analgesic administration, subjects reported high satisfaction with pain management.
In the 2 EDs studied, we found high levels of pain severity for our patients, as well as low levels of analgesic use. When used, analgesic administration was often delayed. Despite these findings, patient satisfaction remained high. Despite recent efforts to improve pain management practice; oligoanalgesia remains a problem for our specialty.
To study the epidemiology and preventability of blood contact with skin and mucous membranes during surgical procedures.
Observers present at 1,382 surgical procedures recorded information about the procedure, the personnel present, and the contacts that occurred.
Four US teaching hospitals during 1990.
Operating room personnel in five surgical specialties.
Main Outcome Measures:
Numbers and circumstances of contact between the patient's blood (or other infective fluids) and surgical personnel's mucous membranes (mucous membrane contacts) or skin (skin contacts, excluding percutaneous injuries).
A total of 1,069 skin (including 620 hand, 258 body, and 172 face) and 32 mucous membrane (all affecting eyes) contacts were observed. Surgeons sustained most contacts (19% had ≥1 skin contact and 0.5% had ≥1 mucous membrane-eye contact). Hand contacts were 72% lower among surgeons who double gloved, and face contacts were prevented reliably by face shields. Mucous membrane-eye contacts were significantly less frequent in surgeons wearing eyeglasses and were absent in surgeons wearing goggles or face shields. Among surgeons, risk factors for skin contact depended on the area of contact: hand contacts were associated most closely with procedure duration (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 9.4; ≥4 versus <1 hour); body contacts (arms, legs, and torso) with estimated blood losses (adjusted OR, 8.4; ≥1,000 versus <100 mL); and face contacts, with orthopedic service (adjusted OR, 7.5 compared with general surgery).
Skin and mucous membrane contacts are preventable by appropriate barrier precautions, yet occur commonly during surgery. Surgeons who perform procedures similar to those included in this study should strongly consider double gloving, changing gloves routinely during surgery, or both.
Mobile medical clinics were established by an international medical relief organization to provide health care to victims of the war in Somalia. The study's purpose was to examine the prevalence of diseases seen and the effectiveness of mobile medical clinics, and to evaluate military support in security and care provisions.
This is a descriptive case series conducted over a 6-month period. Physicians determined clinical diagnoses, and clinic personnel assigned security scores (one to five) based on: 1) crowd control; 2) the incidence of looting; and 3) threats of violence by individuals demanding treatment.
Mobile medical teams that provided health care to regions in urban and rural Somalia assisted by United States and Italian military forces.
At 149 mobile clinics, 25,265 patients were treated.
Medical treatment included dispensing medications, intravenous rehydration, and minor surgical procedures. The effectiveness of security measures was scored based on: 1) effective crowd control; 2) the lack of theft or threats of violence; and 3) the unimpaired operation of the clinic.
Medical teams treated 25,265 patients. The most common medical problems encountered were skin infections (19.5%), upper and lower respiratory tract infections (16.1%), and gastroenteritis with dehydration (7.1%). Malnutrition was seen in 4.7% of cases, and trauma accounted for only 0.7% of complaints. When military escorts were provided, the mean security score was 43% higher (4.85 ±0.46) as compared to the absence of a military escort (3.40 ±0.60) (p <0.001).
Mobile medical clinics were found to be effective in this setting despite difficult conditions, limited therapeutic modalities, and few in-patient facilities. Infectious diseases were most common, while malnutrition and trauma were less commonly seen. The cooperation of United States and Italian military forces facilitated relief efforts by maintaining security, particularly in unstable areas.
Pediatric mortality is predicted by age, presence of head trauma, head trauma with a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, a low Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), and transport directly to a pediatric trauma center.
Studied were 1,429 patients younger than 16 years old admitted to or declared dead on arrival (DOA) in a pediatric trauma center from January through October, 1988. The trauma system, which served 3-million persons, included six pediatric trauma centers.
Data were obtained by a retrospective review of summary statistics provided to the Chicago Department of Health by the pediatric trauma centers.
Overall mortality was 4.8% (68 of 1429); 32 of the patients who died (47.1%) were DOA. The in-hospital mortality rate was 2.6%. Head injury was the principal diagnosis in 46.2% of admissions and was a factor in 72.2% of hospital deaths. The mortality rate was 20.3% in children with a GCS≤10 and 0.4% when the GCS was >10 (odds ratio [OR] = 67.0, 95% CI = 15.0–417.4). When the PTS was ≤ 5, mortality was 25.6%; with a PTS > 5, the mortality was 0.2% (OR = 420.7, 95% CI = 99.3–2,520). Although transfers to a pediatric trauma center accounted for 73.6% of admissions, direct field triage to a pediatric trauma center was associated with a 3.2 times greater mortality risk (95% CI = 1.58–6.59). Mortality rates were equal for all age groups. Pediatric trauma center volume did not influence mortality rates.
Head injury and death occur in all age groups, suggesting the need for broad prevention strategies. Specific GCS and PTS values that predict mortality can be used in emergency medical services (EMS) triage protocols. Although the high proportion of transfers mandates systemwide transfer protocols, the lower mortality in these patients suggests appropriate EMS field triage. These factors should be considered as states develop pediatric trauma systems.
The civil war in Somalia has destroyed the medical system and left hundreds of thousands of people without access to medical care. Samaritan's Purse and World Medical Missions, two relief organizations, developed mobile medical teams to provide health care to urban and rural Somalia. Gastroenteritis with severe dehydration was encountered frequently, and difficult intravenous (TV) access presented a challenging dilemma for patients who were unable to tolerate oral or nasogastric fluid administration.
Intraperitoneal (IV) fluid infusion may be used to treat dehydration in patients with poor venous access and ongoing fluid losses.
Two mobile medical teams treated patients from 1 January to 1 April 1993. Intraperitoneal fluid infusions were given to 16 patients with severe dehydration in whom IV access was unobtainable. Children received approximately 80 ml/kg of 0.45% normal saline, and adults received 40 ml/kg of 0.9% normal saline. Patients were reexamined at one and seven days.
A total of 25,659 patients were seen in the mobile medical clinics during a 3-month period. Dehydration was diagnosed in 1,833 (7.1%) patients, and 1,203 (4.7%) patients were found to be malnourished. Sixteen patients were treated with IP fluid infusions, 14 patients (87.5%) survived, and two patients (12.5%) died, both within 24 hours. In one patient (6.3%), subcutaneous infiltration occurred without subsequent adverse effects.
This case series found that in the mobile clinic setting in Somalia, IP fluid administration improved the hydration status in patients with significant dehydration. Although IV infusion remains the treatment of choice when oral or nasogastric fluid administration is not possible, IP infusion is easily performed and may be an important alternative in disaster setting.
The purposes of this study are to quantify the use of nitroglycerin (NTG) in prehospital care, to detect deviations from the Standing Medical Orders (SMO), to determin the effectiveness of its administration, and the incidence of clinically significant adverse reactions (hypotension, bradycardia).
Retrospective review of 7683 Advanced Life Support (ALS) telemetry, base-station contacts over a three month period (June, July, Auguest 1990) to identify all prehospital patient contacts in which NTG was utilized.
The Resource Hospital/Telemetry Base-Station a two community hospitals/Telemetry Base-Stations for the Chicago North EMS System.
There were 445 runs in which NTG was indicated as per SMO. Two hundred eighty-eight patients (64.7%) received NTG for appropriate indications as per SMO, 203 for ischemic chest pain (45.6%), 79 for pulmonary edema (17.7%), and six for both (1.3%). There were 157 (35.5%) runs in which NTG was indicated, but not administered. There were 22 patients who received NTG for indications that deviated from the SMO. Reassessment data concerning the subjective symptom was completed on 118 patients (40.9%), 92 (45.3%) patients with chest pain and 26 with dyspnea (32.9%). Following the administration of NTG, 21 patients (10.1%) with chest pain were unchanged, while 13 with dyspnea (15.3%) improved, 13 patients (15.3%) were unchanged, and none worsened. In 121 patients, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased, while 24 were unchanged (5.4%), and 28 had an increase (6.3%). The mean initial value SBP was 176±44 mmHg and the repeat mean SBP was 164±41 mmHg with a mean decrease of 12±22 mmHg. The diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased in 87 patients, was unchanged in 53 (11.9%), and increased in 33 (7.4%). The initial mean DBP was 97±24 mmHg, the repeat mean DBP was 92±23 mmHg, a mean decrease of 5±15 mmHg. Only one patient became hypotensive with the administration of NTG and was successfully resusticated with a fluid bolus of 300 ml normal saline.
In this EMS system, NTG is under-utilized based on the indications delineated by this system's SMOs. Reassessment is documented infrequently, but when completed, clinically significant adverse reactions are rare. Since the incidence of hypotension and bradycardia are rare, the inability to establish an IV line should not preclude the administration of NTG.
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