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A low temperature amorphous zinc indium oxide (ZIO) thin film transistor (TFT) backplane technology for high information content flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed. We have fabricated 4.1-in. diagonal OLED backplanes on the Flexible Display Center’s six-inch wafer-scale pilot line using ZIO as the active layer. The ZIO based TFTs exhibited an effective saturation mobility of 18.6 cm2/V-s and a threshold voltage shift of 2.2 Volts or less under positive and negative gate bias DC stress for 10000 seconds. We report on the critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process: the qualification of the low temperature (200°C) ZIO process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication of white organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays.
Ever since C. Eric Lincoln published The Black Muslims in America, in 1961, many observers of the Nation of Islam (NOI) have seemed convinced by his claim that the movement was neither very “religious” nor “Islamic” in nature. In that classic study, currently in its third edition, Lincoln conceded that “the Black Muslim movement constitutes a legitimate religion within the definition of the sociology of religion” but also maintained that “religious values have a secondary importance.” For Lincoln, the success of the movement stemmed not from the particular nature of its religious activities but from its ability to provide a sense of “group solidarity” to the dispossessed black working class. According to Lincoln, this sense of community was produced through the group's embrace of black nationalism, which he understood to be “first a defensive response to external forces—hostile forces that threaten their creative existence.”