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Sub-Ångstrom TEM to a resolution of 0.78Å has been demonstrated by the one-Ångstrom microscope (OÅM) project at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The OÅM combines a modified CM300FEG-UT with computer software able to generate sub-Angstrom images from experimental image series.
Sub-Ångstrom HREM is gaining in importance as researchers design and build artificially-structured nanomaterials such as semiconductor devices, ceramic coatings, and nanomachines. Commonly, such nanostructures include atoms with bond lengths shorter in projection than the point resolution of a mid-voltage HREM. in addition, image simulations have shown that structure determinations of defects such as dislocation cores require sub-Angstrom resolution, as will hold true for grain boundaries and other interfaces.
Sub-Ångstrom microscopy with a transmission electron microscope requires meticulous attention to detail. As resolution is improved, resolution-limiting parameters need to be reduced. in particular, aberrations must be minimized, power supplies must be stabilized, and the microscope environment optimized to reduce acoustic and electromagnetic noise in addition to vibration.
In 1999 NCEM's One Ångstrom Microscope (OAM) became fully operational. The OAM is a Philips CM300 FEG/UT field emission microscope with holographic capabilities that is equipped with a Gatan Image Filter (GIF) and operates at 300 kV. It was designed to reach a resolution close to the “magic barrier” around one Ångstrom (100 pm) by combining mid voltage technology with advanced computer processing [1,2]. Ahardware correction of the three-fold astigmatism allows for aberration free imaging down to sub Ångstrom values . In this contribution it will be shown that the instrument's performance exceeded expectations because sub Ångstrom resolution can be achieved by reconstructing electron exit waves from focal series .
Figure la depicts a simulated  lattice image of a 90° partial dislocation in silicon. Tersoff potentials were used to calculate the exact atomic positions around dislocations with different core structures .
Laser lift-off and bonding has been demonstrated as a viable route for the integration of III-nitride opto-electronics with mainstream device technology. A critical remaining question is the structural and chemical quality of the layers following lift-off. In this paper, we present detailed structural and chemical characterization of both the epitaxial layer and the substrate using standard transmission electron microscopy techniques. Conventional diffraction contrast and high resolution electron microscopy indicate that the structural alteration of the material is limited to approximately the first 50 nm. Energy dispersive electron spectroscopy line profiles show that intermixing is also confined to similar thicknesses. These results indicate that laser lift-off of even thin layers is likely to result in materials suitable for device integration. Additionally, because the damage to the sapphire substrate is minimal, it should be possible to polish and re-use these substrates for subsequent heteroepitaxial growths, resulting in significant economic benefits.
High resolution electron microscopes with field emission sources opened the possibility to investigate solids on a 100 pm range. Either electron holograpy can be applied or an information limit that may even extend into a region below 100 pm can be exploited to reach this goal . However, lens aberrations such as the three-fold astigmatism often complicate an image interpretation in the 100 pm range or even make it impossible . On the other hand, there is growing need to understand physical processes at a mono-atomic level in order to further develop artificially structured materials such as nano-crystals, ceramic coatings or semiconductors. Commonly, such materials contain light elements like C, N, or O with bond lengths that are shorter than a typical 180 pm point resolution of a high resolution, electron microscope. The carbon-carbon distance of 150 pm is the shortest bond length value in crystalline solids. Moreover, any projection of a diamond lattice along a low index zone axis for lattice imaging leads to a reduced C-C distance.
Nowadays, High Resolution Electron Microscopes are capable to resolve structures on a scale below 100 pm. They can be equipped for Electron Holography in order to detect electric / magnetic fields and for chemical analyses (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy & Energy Dispersed X-ray's) that can be performed with a lateral resolution of 0.5 to 1 nm . With the aid of computer sciences it became also possible to quantify local strain. We utilize Philips CM200 and CM300 field emission instruments with attached image filters, the JEOL Atomic Resolution Microscope and specialized software  to perform these tasks. On the other hand, a recent highlight in materials sciences is the development a GaN technology that is driven by a fast trial and error approach and aims to revolutionize lighting . It was unavoidable that basic materials properties of the nano-structured thin films are barely understood because of the rapid progress .
The latest transmission electron microscopes with field emission guns and imaging filters now provide much of the microanalysis and imaging necessary in applications such as ULSI device development. The installation and operating environment of the instruments are critical to their successful operation. Information from two such installations is presented here, one in a purpose built facility and the other in an existing building. Ground vibration, acoustic noise, stray electromagnetic fields, air flow and temperature variation are considered, and the measures implemented to achieve desirable levels of each parameter are discussed. The physical layout of an installation is also shown.
The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is one of the most useful tools available to the materials scientist. Yet both the complexity and expense of the equipment, and the huge investment in time necessary to become proficient in specimen preparation and image acquisition and analysis, mean that it is difficult for most industrial institutions to maintain a state-of-the-art TEM facility. How can industry overcome this problem? One solution is to set up a collaboration with a university, an industrial partner, or a government research laboratory. Such collaborations can be extremely valuable to the company, which gains access to microscopes, specimen-preparation equipment and the expertise of professional microscopists, and to the research laboratory, which benefits from the industrial perspective and the private sector's proficiency in materials preparation and processing.
Such collaborations exist, and they can produce excellent results. In this article, we present three case studies in which successful collaboration has occurred between industry and one of the Department of Energy's scientific user facilities, the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM-see sidebar). Our aim is not only to describe results that we hope will be of scientific interest but also to encourage industrial researchers to consider collaborations with institutes such as NCEM.
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