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This Element describes child sexual abuse and the formal organizations in which it can occur, reviews extant perspectives on child abuse, and explains how an organization theory approach can advance understanding of this phenomenon. It then elaborates the main paths through which organizational structures can influence child sexual abuse in organizations and analyze how these structures operate through these paths to impact the perpetration, detection, and response to abuse. The analysis is illustrated throughout with reports of child sexual abuse published in a variety of sources. The Element concludes with a brief discussion of the policy implications of this analysis.
A fossil assemblage containing molluscs, mammals, insects, ostracodes, and plants has been recovered from a silt-filled depression near Lima, in west-central Illinois. The reversed remanent magnetic signature of the sediments and the temporal ranges of two mammals, Microtus paroperarius and Lasiopodomys deceitensis, constrain the age of the assemblage to between 730,000 and 830,000 yr B.P. The extent of isoleucine epimerization in the molluscan shell is consistent with this age interpretation. The fauna includes at least 43 taxa of beetles from 11 families, 35 nominal species of molluscs, and two genera of ostracodes. The mammals include two shrews, three rodents, and a rabbit. The plant macrofossils (no pollen recovered) include 25 species of seed plants and four kinds of terrestrial or wetland mosses. Most of the plant species identified still occur in the upper Midwest, although a few of the taxa are found mainly to the north of the site. The fauna is characterized by an almost total absence of true aquatic taxa. The association of both boreal and thermophilous faunal and floral elements suggest that summer temperatures were not greatly different from present ones, but cooler, moist areas must have been available to support the boreal elements. Local conditions were probably similar to those now found in northeastern Iowa, where rains blocks, fissures, and joints in carbonate bedrock serve as traps for debris accumulations, provide shade, and are kept cool and moist during the hot summer months by cold-air drainage and groundwater seepage. Summer mean temperature in these microhabitats was probably between 18 and 20°C, similar to temperatures that now occur near the northern hardwood spruce-fir transition in the eastern United States.
A fossil assemblage containing molluscs, ostracodes, and fish has been recovered from lacustrine sediments from near Connersville, southeastern Indiana. The reversed remanent magnetic signature of the sediments and the extent of isoleucine epimerization in molluscan shell protein indicate a pre-Illinoian age for the fossils. The fauna includes four taxa of fish, Coregonus sp., cf. Prosopium sp., cf. Thymallus arcticus, and Catostomus sp.; four taxa of ostracodes, Cytherissa lacustris, Candona caudata, Cyclocypris ampla, and Candona sp.; and 28 taxa of molluscs. Elements of the aquatic molluscs, fish, and ostracodes suggest a cool-water lake (8° to 16°C). The terrestrial molluscs include boreal species that now reach the southern limits of their range in the Great Lakes region near the north shore of Lake Superior and imply average summer temperatures of about 15°C near the lake margins. The lake may have been formed when West Lebanon ice advanced into the Anderson-New Castle Buried Valley system which drained northwest as a tributary of the Lafayette Bedrock Valley System.
This chapter critically reviews extant social network theory and research on misconduct in and by organizations, focusing primarily on the individual level of analysis and considering the role that social networks play in the initiation, diffusion, effectiveness, and demise of wrongdoing. We conclude that a more comprehensive understanding of the role of social networks in wrongdoing in and by organizations hinges on four contextual factors: (1) the predispositions of the actors involved, (2) the nature of the wrongdoing in question, (3) the institutional environment in which the wrongdoing is perpetrated, and (4) the temporal dynamics through which the wrongdoing unfolds. We also conclude that a more nuanced understanding of the role of social networks in organizational wrongdoing requires greater attention to the quality and type of relationship that a given social tie represents, more extensive utilization of qualitative research methods, learning from emerging social network theory and research in other disciplines, particularly criminology, and further incorporation of the organizational level of analysis.
Theory and research on social networks has a long tradition in sociology, social psychology, and anthropology and an increasing presence in organizational studies. In this chapter, we critically review the embryonic but growing body of social network theory and research on misconduct in and by organizations. We structure our review around the three main areas of prior research: the role of social networks in the initiation, evolution, and consequences of wrongdoing. We use Brass, Butterfield, and Skaggs’ (1998) seminal theoretical analysis of the role that social networks play in unethical behavior as the starting point for our review, which reaffirms, extends, and in some cases suggests modifications to their arguments. We tap a range of empirical studies on social networks and organizational misconduct, most importantly a series of investigations by Baker, Faulkner, and associates (Baker and Faulkner 1993, 2003, 2004; Faulkner and Cheney 2014; Faulkner et al. 2003) to flesh out our discussion. We conclude that a comprehensive understanding of the role of social networks in wrongdoing in and by organizations hinges on several contextual factors that social network analyses sometimes overlook in the drive to use the patterns of relationships among wrongdoers and their victims as the dominant explanatory device. We end by suggesting several lines of inquiry that social network analysts might explore in connection with organizational wrongdoing in the future.
This volume is devoted to exploring the causes, processes, consequences, and nature of wrongdoing in and by organizations. Such conduct, hereafter for convenience referred to as organizational misconduct and organizational wrongdoing, includes a wide range of behaviors – violations of criminal, civil, and administrative law; transgressions of explicit industry and professional codes; and contraventions of less codified organizational rules, social norms, and ethical principles. Given their apparent greater incidence and scale in recent years, it is not surprising that these behaviors have received increasing attention in scholarly circles, in practitioner communities, and among the general public as of late. Moreover, and contrary to previous work, recent scholarship has adopted a range of perspectives and elaborated its focus and concerns to include aspects of wrongdoing previously ignored. This introduction outlines how recent scholarship contributes to the renaissance of management scholarship on organizational misconduct.
The dearth of theory and research on organizational wrongdoing
Kenneth Boulding (1958), in his review of the first two volumes of Administrative Science Quarterly, identified the study of misconduct in and by organizations as an object of inquiry that was of enduring importance to management practitioners and society but that was receiving scant attention from the journal's contributors. Since Boulding's early assessment, other observers have periodically lamented management scholars’ neglect of organizational misconduct relative to other topics of apparently greater interest, such as organizational efficiency and effectiveness (Brief 2000; Hinings and Greenwood 1982). This lack of attention to misconduct in and by organizations implicitly conveys the assumption that organizational wrongdoing is rare and peripheral to organizational functioning.
At the dawn of the new century, though, a series of episodes of organizational wrongdoing received massive media attention, including incidents at Enron, Arthur Andersen, Tyco, and WorldCom in the United States, Barclays Bank in the United Kingdom, Parmalat in Italy, Satyam in India, as well as incidents of misconduct at a large number of multi-national financial institutions implicated in the recent global financial crisis and in international governance organizations such as the world soccer Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). These affairs likely received extensive media attention partly because new forms of media (most importantly, forms of media made possible by the expansion of the Internet) were emerging that facilitated the dissemination and amplification of news about misconduct.
Organizational Wrongdoing is an essential companion to understanding the causes, processes and consequences of misconduct at work. With contributions from some of the world's leading management theorists, past theories on misconduct are critically evaluated, and the latest research is introduced, expanding the boundaries of our knowledge and filling in gaps highlighted in previous studies. A wide range of unethical, socially irresponsible, and illegal behaviors are discussed, including cheating, hyper-competitive employee actions, and financial fraud. Further multiple levels of analysis are considered, ranging from individual to organization-wide processes. By providing a contemporary overview of wrongdoing and misconduct, this book provides solid and accessible foundations for established researchers and advanced students in the fields of behavioral ethics and organizational behavior.
This study reports the effects of a 12-week multimodular cognitive
rehabilitation training program on memory performance in two groups of
older adults. In the Memory Training module, participants were instructed
on the nature of memory and how to improve memory performance; internal
and external strategies were described and practiced over the training
sessions. Memory performance was assessed by four tests: Alpha Span,
Brown-Peterson, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test − Revised (HVLT-R), and
Logical Stories. One group received training on entry into the study
(Early Training Group, ETG), the other after a 3-month delay (Late
Training Group, LTG). The results showed no training-related improvement
in working memory (Alpha Span), primary memory (Brown-Peterson, HVLT-R),
or recognition memory (HVLT-R). While the most direct analyses of a
training effect (analyses of covariance) rarely demonstrated significant
effects, exploratory analyses provided some evidence for a training
benefit in several measures of secondary memory (Logical Stories; HVLT-R)
and strategic processing (Brown-Peterson; Logical Stories; HVLT-R).
Positive results were largely restricted to the ETG, possibly because the
LTG lost motivation as a consequence of their delayed training. The
results need to be treated with caution, but are promising for the
rehabilitation of memory functioning in older adults (JINS, 2007,
In this study, we report changes in psychosocial function in two
groups of older adults that participated in the experimental trial of our
cognitive rehabilitation program. The results, based on tests that
measured a range of psychosocial attributes, showed that, following
training, participants improved in terms of overall well-being, as well as
in specific areas that included perceived happiness, coping strategies,
and quality of life. An important finding was that improvements were also
observed in long-term follow-up testing. Both groups benefited from
training, but the effect was greater in the group that received training
before undergoing a control procedure. The results, which show that the
benefits of our rehabilitation program extend into the psychosocial
domain, underscore the potentially important relationship between
psychosocial factors and cognitive performance in older adults.
(JINS, 2007, 13, 153–165.)
This study provides an introduction to, and overview of, several
papers that resulted from a randomized control trial that evaluated a new
cognitive rehabilitation protocol. The program was designed to improve
general strategic abilities in ways that would be expressed in a broad
range of functional domains. The trial, which was conducted on a sample of
older adults who had experienced normal age-related cognitive decline,
assessed performance in the following domains: memory, goal management,
and psychosocial status. The general rationale for the trial, the overall
experimental design, and the approach to statistical analyses that are
relevant to each paper are described here. The results for each functional
domain are reported in separate papers in this series (JINS,
2007, 13, 120–131.)
This study provides an overview of the papers emanating from the
experimental trial that evaluated a new cognitive rehabilitation program
in older adults who were experiencing normal cognitive decline. The main
features of the design are summarized, along with evidence that the
training produced long-lasting improvement in memory performance, goal
management, and psychosocial status. The benefits were attributed to
several factors, including the program's emphasis on techniques that
promoted efficient strategic processing. Limitations of the program and
directions for future research are discussed (JINS, 2007,
We determined the rates of cognitive change associated with twenty
individual measures. Participants included 547 noninstitutionalized
septuagenarians and octogenarian residents of a comprehensive care
retirement community who were studied over three years. Latent growth
curves (LGC) of multiple cognitive measures were compared to a LGC model
of the rates of change in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). All curves were
standardized relative to each variable's baseline distribution.
Baseline scores were within their expected normal age-specific ranges.
Most measures showed significant rates of change over time. There was also
significant variability about those rates, suggesting clinical
heterogeneity. Many deteriorated over time, as did ADLs and IADLs.
However, performance on some measures improved, consistent with learning
effects. The rates of change in two measures, the Executive Interview and
the Trail Making Test, were closely related to decline in IADLs. These
results suggest that age-related cognitive decline is a dynamic
longitudinal process affecting multiple cognitive domains. Heterogeneity
in the rates of cognitive change may reflect the summed effects of age and
comorbid conditions affecting cognition. Some measures may be ill-suited
for measuring age-related changes in cognition, either because they are
insensitive to change, or hindered by learning effects. Nonverbal measures
appear to be particularly well suited for the prediction of age-related
functional decline. These observations are relevant to the definition and
diagnosis of “dementing” conditions. (JINS, 2005,
Although the majority of publications on extant nonmarine ostracode species in North America are concerned with lacustrine settings, many species that are potentially valuable as indicators of water quality changes live in non-lacustrine settings. Ostracode distributions in 157 springs, wetlands and streams in the United States are examined here in order to assess 1) species richness, 2) association with physical and chemical parameters of their habitats and 3) the presence of potentially useful biomonitors and environmental sentinels. The 157 non-lacustrine sites are a subset of a large database (North American Non-marine Ostracode Database: NANODe version 1) consisting of 611 mostly lacustrine sites with ostracode species, presence-absence data, hydrochemistry and climate data (Forester et al., in review). Of the 89 species represented in NANODe version 1, 51 species are found in springs, 59 species are found in wetlands and only 15 species are found in streams. Many species are found in at least two of these habitats and some in all three. Principal Components Analysis of these 157 sites indicates that 71% of the variance is explained by salinity (total ionic concentration), alkalinity and temperature, a result consistent with previously published analyses of natural water. Cluster analysis shows that spring species are most strongly tied to temperature, whereas wetlands and streams are most strongly tied to ionic composition. Three species are found to be potentially valuable biomonitors: Cavernocypris wardi in springs, Fabaeformiscandona rawsoni in wetlands and Physocypria globula in streams.
In Ersilia, to establish the relationships that sustain the city's life, the inhabitants stretch strings from the corners of the houses, white or black or gray or black-and-white according to whether they mark a relationship of blood, of trade, authority, agency. When the strings become so numerous that you can no longer pass among them, the inhabitants leave: the houses are dismantled; only the strings and their supports remain.
Italo Valcino, Invisible Cities
The composition and growth of territorial communities have been theorized to depend upon their position within larger systems of such communities. Thus analyses of cities and regions have increasingly moved from focussing on attributes of places toward the study of the relations among them. In this chapter, we review past conceptions of the city system in market economies – conceptions that we argue are not appropriate for advanced Western societies like the United States. We then present an alternative conception of the US city system, examine its determinants, and consider how a city's position in this system affects its growth.
Activity without actors
Various mechanisms governing the relationships among places have been studied. Whether conceptualized as exchange, function or industry, these mechanisms are all based upon some form of activity.
In central place theory, places are linked to one another in spatially segregated, hierarchically ordered market areas. Higher-order, more central places produce for lower-order, less central places, each higher-order place exchanging its goods and services with hinterlands of ever larger extent.