To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cholecystokinin is a neuropeptide with a role in the neurobiology of adaptive behaviour that is implicated in anxiety disorders, while the underlying mechanisms currently remain insufficiently explained. The rs2941026 variation in the cholecystokinin B receptor gene has previously been associated with trait anxiety. Our aim was to investigate associations between the CCKB receptor gene polymorphism rs2941026 with anxiety, personality, depressiveness and suicidality in a longitudinal study of late adolescence and early adulthood.
We used reports on trait and state anxiety, depressiveness and suicidal thoughts, as well as Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales, from the two birth cohorts of the Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study. We measured associations between the CCKBR gene rs2941026 and anxiety-related phenotypes both longitudinally and cross-sectionally at ages 15, 18, 25 and 33.
Homozygosity for both alleles of the CCKBR rs2941026 was associated with higher trait and state anxiety in the longitudinal analysis. Cross-sectional comparisons were statistically significant at ages 18 and 25 for trait anxiety and at ages 25 and 33 for state anxiety. Higher depressiveness and suicidal thoughts were associated with the A/A genotype at age 18. Additionally, homozygosity for the A-allele was related to higher FEAR and SADNESS in the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales. The genotype effects were more apparent in females, who displayed higher levels of negative affect overall.
CCKBR genotype is persistently associated with negative affect in adolescence and young adulthood. The association of the CCKBR rs2941026 genotype with anxiety-related phenotypes is more pronounced in females.
Stressful life events play an important role in the aetiology of human mood disorders and are frequently modelled by chronic social defeat (SD) in rodents. Exploratory phenotype in rats is a stable trait that is likely related to inter-individual differences in reactivity to stress. The aim of the study was to confirm that low levels of exploratory activity (LE) are, in rodents, a risk factor for passive stress coping, and to clarify the role of medium (ME) and high (HE) exploratory disposition in the sensitivity to SD.
We examined the effect of SD on male Wistar rats with LE, ME, and HE activity levels as measured in the exploration box. After SD, the rats were evaluated in social preference, elevated zero maze, and open-field tests. Brain tissue levels of monoamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Rats submitted to SD exhibited lower weight gain, higher sucrose consumption, showed larger stress-induced hyperthermia, lower levels of homovanillic acid in the frontal cortex, and higher levels of noradrenaline in the amygdala and hippocampus. Open-field, elevated zero maze, and social preference tests revealed the interaction between stress and phenotype, as only LE-rats were further inhibited by SD. ME-rats exhibited the least reactivity to stress in terms of changes in body weight, stress-induced hyperthermia, and sucrose intake.
Both low and high novelty-related activity, especially the former, are associated with elevated sensitivity to social stress. This study shows that both tails of a behavioural dimension can produce stress-related vulnerability.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.