The ideal program for the future study of animal behaviour would involve the coordination of field and laboratory investigation.Schaller (1965, p. 624)
In the early days of expeditions, a naturalist's field equipment consisted of little more than a gun and the means to preserve specimens. Later on, with the shift towards collecting information on primate behaviour and ecology, rather than collecting the animal itself, field primatologists relied on pencil and paper, binoculars, a compass and, if studying nocturnal species, a torch. In 1974, Jeanne Altmann's paper on observational sampling methods, intended ‘as a guide to thinking, planning and design’ (Altmann, 2010, p. 48), led to systematic, quantitative studies of behaviour. More recently, a shift in emphasis towards integration of methods has led to collaboration between laboratory and field researchers working on wild primates. Technological advances have presented fieldworkers with the opportunity to collect more sophisticated data, replace check-sheets with hand-held computers, store samples for later laboratory analysis, analyse samples in the field and collect information remotely. This has led to an increase in data collected, using, for example, non-invasive techniques for DNA analyses and hormonal assays. Ecological methods and techniques available for monitoring primate habitats have also improved, with the application of remote sensing, mapping (Global Positioning Systems), and data integration (Geographic Information Systems). These methods open up possibilities to collect new information on previously studied populations, and a means to collect data on species that cannot be habituated for behavioural observations.