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We sought to determine whether increased antimicrobial use (AU) at the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was driven by greater AU in COVID-19 patients only, or whether AU also increased in non–COVID-19 patients.
In this retrospective observational ecological study from 2019 to 2020, we stratified inpatients by COVID-19 status and determined relative percentage differences in median monthly AU in COVID-19 patients versus non–COVID-19 patients during the COVID-19 period (March–December 2020) and the pre–COVID-19 period (March–December 2019). We also determined relative percentage differences in median monthly AU in non–COVID-19 patients during the COVID-19 period versus the pre–COVID-19 period. Statistical significance was assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.
The study was conducted in 3 acute-care hospitals in Chicago, Illinois.
Facility-wide AU for broad-spectrum antibacterial agents predominantly used for hospital-onset infections was significantly greater in COVID-19 patients versus non–COVID-19 patients during the COVID-19 period (with relative increases of 73%, 66%, and 91% for hospitals A, B, and C, respectively), and during the pre–COVID-19 period (with relative increases of 52%, 64%, and 66% for hospitals A, B, and C, respectively). In contrast, facility-wide AU for all antibacterial agents was significantly lower in non–COVID-19 patients during the COVID-19 period versus the pre–COVID-19 period (with relative decreases of 8%, 7%, and 8% in hospitals A, B, and C, respectively).
AU for broad-spectrum antimicrobials was greater in COVID-19 patients compared to non–COVID-19 patients at the onset of the pandemic. AU for all antibacterial agents in non–COVID-19 patients decreased in the COVID-19 period compared to the pre–COVID-19 period.
To describe antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred in 2011–2014 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network.
Data from central line–associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonias, and surgical site infections were analyzed. These HAIs were reported from acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Pooled mean proportions of pathogens that tested resistant (or nonsusceptible) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by year and HAI type.
Overall, 4,515 hospitals reported that at least 1 HAI occurred in 2011–2014. There were 408,151 pathogens from 365,490 HAIs reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network, most of which were reported from acute care hospitals with greater than 200 beds. Fifteen pathogen groups accounted for 87% of reported pathogens; the most common included Escherichia coli (15%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), Klebsiella species (8%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8%). In general, the proportion of isolates with common resistance phenotypes was higher among device-associated HAIs compared with surgical site infections. Although the percent resistance for most phenotypes was similar to earlier reports, an increase in the magnitude of the resistance percentages among E. coli pathogens was noted, especially related to fluoroquinolone resistance.
This report represents a national summary of antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and phenotypes. The distribution of frequent pathogens and some resistance patterns appear to have changed from 2009–2010, highlighting the need for continual, careful monitoring of these data across the spectrum of HAI types.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry.
Describe the impact of standardizing state-specific summary measures of antibiotic resistance that inform regional interventions to reduce transmission of resistant pathogens in healthcare settings.
Analysis of public health surveillance data.
Central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) data from intensive care units (ICUs) of facilities reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network in 2011 were analyzed. For CLABSI due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-nonsusceptible Klebsiella species, and carbapenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella species, we computed 3 state-level summary measures of nonsusceptibility: crude percent nonsusceptible, model-based adjusted percent nonsusceptible, and crude infection incidence rate.
Overall, 1,791 facilities reported CLABSIs from ICU patients. Of 1,618 S. aureus CLABSIs with methicillin-susceptibility test results, 791 (48.9%) were due to MRSA. Of 756 Klebsiella CLABSIs with ESC-susceptibility test results, 209 (27.7%) were due to ESC-nonsusceptible Klebsiella, and among 661 Klebsiella CLABSI with carbapenem susceptibility test results, 70 (10.6%) were due to carbapenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella. All 3 state-specific measures demonstrated variability in magnitude by state. Adjusted measures, with few exceptions, were not appreciably different from crude values for any phenotypes. When linking values of crude and adjusted percent nonsusceptible by state, a state’s absolute rank shifted slightly for MRSA in 5 instances and only once each for ESC-nonsusceptible and carbapenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella species. Infection incidence measures correlated strongly with both percent nonsusceptibility measures.
Crude state-level summary measures, based on existing NHSN CLABSI data, may suffice to assess geographic variability in antibiotic resistance. As additional variables related to antibiotic resistance become available, risk-adjusted summary measures are preferable.
To describe antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) during 2009-2010.
Central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and surgical site infections were included. Pooled mean proportions of isolates interpreted as resistant (or, in some cases, nonsusceptible) to selected antimicrobial agents were calculated by type of HAI and compared to historical data.
Overall, 2,039 hospitals reported 1 or more HAIs; 1,749 (86%) were general acute care hospitals, and 1,143 (56%) had fewer than 200 beds. There were 69,475 HAIs and 81,139 pathogens reported. Eight pathogen groups accounted for about 80% of reported pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus (16%), Enterococcus spp. (14%), Escherichia coli (12%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11%), Candida spp. (9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (and Klebsiella oxytoca; 8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), and Enterobacter spp. (5%). The percentage of resistance was similar to that reported in the previous 2-year period, with a slight decrease in the percentage of S. aureus resistant to oxacillins (MRSA). Nearly 20% of pathogens reported from all HAIs were the following multidrug-resistant phenotypes: MRSA (8.5%); vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (3%); extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca (2%), E. coli (2%), and Enterobacter spp. (2%); and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (2%), K. pneumoniae/oxytoca (<1%), E, coli (<1%), and Enterobacter spp. (<1%). Among facilities reporting HAIs with 1 of the above gram-negative bacteria, 20%-40% reported at least 1 with the resistant phenotype.
While the proportion of resistant isolates did not substantially change from that in the previous 2 years, multidrug-resistant gram-negative phenotypes were reported from a moderate proportion of facilities.
To evaluate national data on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), device utilization, and antimicrobial resistance in long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs).
Design and Setting.
Comparison of data from LTACHs and from medical and medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in short-stay acute care hospitals reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) during 2010.
Rates of central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) as well as device utilization ratios were calculated. For each HAI, pathogen profiles and antimicrobial resistance prevalence were evaluated. Comparisons were made using Poisson regression and the Mood median and x2 tests.
In 2010, 104 LTACHs reported CLABSIs and 57 reported CAUTIs and VAP to the NHSN. Median CLABSI rates in LTACHs (1.25 events per 1,000 device-days reported; range, 0.0-5.96) were comparable to rates in major teaching ICUs and were higher than those in other ICUs. CAUTI rates in LTACHs (median, 2.61; range, 0.0-9.92) were higher and VAP rates (median, 0.0; range, 0.0-3.29) were generally lower than those in ICUs. Central line utilization in LTACHs was higher than that in ICUs, whereas urinary catheter and ventilator utilization was lower. Methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus CLABSIs (83%) and vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecalis CAUTIs (44%) were higher in LTACHs than in ICUs. Multidrug resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa CAUTIs (25%) was higher in LTACHs than in most ICUs.
CLABSIs and CAUTIs associated with multidrug-resistant organisms present a challenge in LTACHs. Continued HAI surveillance with pathogen-level data can guide prevention efforts in LTACHs.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(10):993-1000
Expanding hospitalized patients' risk stratification for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is important for improving patient safety. We applied definitions for hospital-onset (HO) and community-onset (CO) CDI to electronic data from 85 hospitals between January 2007 and June 2008 to identify factors associated with higher HO CDI rates.
Nonrecurrent CDI cases were identified among adult (≥18-year-old) inpatients by a positive C. difficile toxin assay result more than 8 weeks after any previous positive result. Case categories included HO, CO-hospital associated (CO-HA), CO-indeterminate hospital association (CO-IN), and CO–non–hospital associated (CO-NHA). C. difficile testing intensity (CDTI) was defined as the total number of C. difficile tests performed, normalized to the number of patients with at least 1 C. difficile toxin test recorded. We calculated both the incidence density and the prevalence of CDI where appropriate. We fitted a multivariable Poisson model to identify factors associated with higher HO CDI rates.
Among 1,351,156 unique patients with 2,022,213 admissions, 9,803 cases of CDI were identified; of these, 50.6% were HO, 17.4% were CO-HA, 9.0% were CO-IN, and 23.0% were CO-NHA. The incidence density of HO was 6.3 per 10,000 patient-days. The prevalence of CO CDI on admission was, per 10,000 admissions, 8.4 for CO-HA, 4.4 for CO-IN, and 11.1 for CO-NHA. Factors associated (P< .0001) with higher HO CDI rates included older age, higher CO-NHA prevalence on admission, and increased CDTI.
Electronic health information can be leveraged to risk-stratify HO CDI rates by patient age and CO-NHA prevalence on admission. Hospitals should optimize diagnostic testing to improve patient care and measured CDI rates.
To describe the frequency of selected antimicrobial resistance patterns among pathogens causing device-associated and procedure-associated healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported by hospitals in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Data are included on HAIs (ie, central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and surgical site infections) reported to the Patient Safety Component of the NHSN between January 2006 and October 2007. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of up to 3 pathogenic isolates per HAI by a hospital were evaluated to define antimicrobial-resistance in the pathogenic isolates. The pooled mean proportions of pathogenic isolates interpreted as resistant to selected antimicrobial agents were calculated by type of HAI and overall. The incidence rates of specific device-associated infections were calculated for selected antimicrobial-resistant pathogens according to type of patient care area; the variability in the reported rates is described.
Overall, 463 hospitals reported 1 or more HAIs: 412 (89%) were general acute care hospitals, and 309 (67%) had 200-1,000 beds. There were 28,502 HAIs reported among 25,384 patients. The 10 most common pathogens (accounting for 84% of any HAIs) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (15%), Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Enterococcus species (12%), Candida species (11%), Escherichia coli (10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6%), Enterobacter species (5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (3%), and Klebsiella oxytoca (2%). The pooled mean proportion of pathogenic isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents varied significantly across types of HAI for some pathogen-antimicrobial combinations. As many as 16% of all HAIs were associated with the following multidrug-resistant pathogens: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (8% of HAIs), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (4%), carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (2%), extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae (1%), extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli (0.5%), and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and E. coli (0.5%). Nationwide, the majority of units reported no HAIs due to these antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.
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