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Rapid antigen detection tests (Ag-RDT) for SARS-CoV-2 with emergency use authorization generally include a condition of authorization to evaluate the test’s performance in asymptomatic individuals when used serially. We aim to describe a novel study design that was used to generate regulatory-quality data to evaluate the serial use of Ag-RDT in detecting SARS-CoV-2 virus among asymptomatic individuals.
This prospective cohort study used a siteless, digital approach to assess longitudinal performance of Ag-RDT. Individuals over 2 years old from across the USA with no reported COVID-19 symptoms in the 14 days prior to study enrollment were eligible to enroll in this study. Participants throughout the mainland USA were enrolled through a digital platform between October 18, 2021 and February 15, 2022. Participants were asked to test using Ag-RDT and molecular comparators every 48 hours for 15 days. Enrollment demographics, geographic distribution, and SARS-CoV-2 infection rates are reported.
A total of 7361 participants enrolled in the study, and 492 participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, including 154 who were asymptomatic and tested negative to start the study. This exceeded the initial enrollment goals of 60 positive participants. We enrolled participants from 44 US states, and geographic distribution of participants shifted in accordance with the changing COVID-19 prevalence nationwide.
The digital site-less approach employed in the “Test Us At Home” study enabled rapid, efficient, and rigorous evaluation of rapid diagnostics for COVID-19 and can be adapted across research disciplines to optimize study enrollment and accessibility.
A comprehensive documentation of the performances conducted by Charles Mackerras over more than sixty years is beyond the scope of this book. The following lists include performances that Mackerras conducted with some of the opera companies and orchestras with which he worked closely, and they also relate to specific chapters in the book. Mackerras was an astonishingly busy conductor, so these lists can only give a snapshot of his activity with a few selected organisations. Each list is as complete as we have been able to make it with the information available.
A SWO/ENO performances, 1970–77
B Janáček opera performances, 1951–2010
C San Francisco Opera performances, 1969–2000
D WNO performances, 1950–2009
E ROH performances, 1955–2010
F Performances in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic, and with Czech orchestras abroad, 1961–2008
G OAE performances, 1987–2010
H SCO performances, 1993–2010
I Philharmonia performances, 2002–09
A SWO/ENO performances, 1970–77
(See Chapter 1)
The following is a list of operas conducted by Mackerras with SWO/ENO during his time as the company's Music Director. Figures in brackets represent the number of performances of each work Mackerras conducted, including those on tour (at home and abroad) as well as concert performances at the BBC Proms. Performances with the company after 1 January 1978 are not included.
New productions: Beethoven: Leonore, p. Basil Coleman, d. Tony Abbott, Joan and Ann Bloomfield (7); Bizet: Carmen, p. John Copley, d. Stefanos Lazaridis and David Walker (5).
revivals: Mozart: The Magic Flute (1); Mozart: Don Giovanni (4); Mozart: Idomeneo (2); Puccini: La Bohème (1); Wagner: The Flying Dutchman (2). Total: 22
New productions: Handel: Semele, p. and d. Filippo Sanjust (6); Beethoven: Fidelio, p. and d. as for Leonore in 1970 (5); Mozart: The Seraglio, p. Copley, d. Lazaridis (3).
revivals: Bizet: Carmen (4); Mozart: The Magic Flute (6); Puccini: Madam Butterfly (6); Rossini: The Barber of Seville (4); J. Strauss: Die Fledermaus (3); Janáček: The Makropulos Case (4); Wagner: The Valkyrie (2).
By the time of his death in 2010 at the age of 84, Sir Charles Mackerras had achieved widespread recognition, recorded extensively and developed into a conductor of major international significance. In addition to areas in which he already had forged a distinctive and definitive profile (Janacek, Mozart, Handel, Sullivan) he revisited - and rethought - much of the standard repertoire. The last thirty years were particularly momentous in the coming to fruition of so many cherished projects: not only the Janacek operas but the Gilbert and Sullivan series, the Mozart operas, the two Beethoven cycles, other projects with the Scottish Chamber Orchestra (Schumann and Brahms at Edinburgh; the outstanding late Mozart) and at the Royal Opera House and the Met. Unspoilt by fame, and undeterred by personal tragedies and increasing physical frailty, he remained productive and inventive: for him music-making, whether with world-class professionals or with students, was a kind of joyous oxygen that kept him going right to the end. A detailed narrative account of his life by Nigel Simeone is complemented by chapters written by performers and scholars who worked closely with him: Alfred Brendel, Dame Janet Baker, David Lloyd-Jones, Dame Anne Evans, Sir Antonio Pappano, Sir Nicholas Hytner, John Tyrrell and Jiri Zahradka. There are also chapters based on interviews with his family. The book is illustrated with photographs, both informal and professional, and is supplemented by an up-to-date discography, by listings of all the performances of Janacek operas Sir Charles conducted and of all his concerts in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. While Sir Charles' whole life is considered, emphasis is given to his final quarter century in which so many important projects were realized. This book celebrates and epitomizes an exceptional life. NIGEL SIMEONE has published books on Janacek, Messiaen and Bernstein. JOHN TYRRELL has published books on Janacek and Czech opera and, with Sir Charles Mackerras, edited two Janacek operas. Contributors: Janet Baker, Alfred Brendel, Ales Brezina, Rosenna East, Anne Evans, Nicholas Hytner, Simon Keenlyside, David Lloyd-Jones, David Mackie, Chi-chi Nwanoku, Antonio Pappano, Nigel Simeone, John Stein, Heinz Stolba, Patrick Summers, John Tyrrell, Malcolm Walker, David Whelton, Jiri Zahradka.
The idea for this book came originally from members of the Mackerras family, particularly Charles's widow, Judy, who saw the text in proof before her death on 13 December 2014, his daughter Catherine (Cathy) and his sisters Joan and Elizabeth. Since both authors have been passionate admirers of Mackerras's conducting for many years, it was an opportunity we relished. At our initial meeting with Cathy, she encouraged us to develop the project as we thought best, and offered generous support. This included access to her father's private papers, which has enabled us to publish a number of letters and documents for the first time, shedding light on several significant aspects of his career and his working methods. An important consideration from the outset was how our book could usefully complement Nancy Phelan's admirable 1987 biography, Charles Mackerras: A Musician's Musician. One obvious way was to concentrate on the years since Phelan's book was published, which included some of the busiest and most rewarding of Charles's career. Moreover, this book was an opportunity to evaluate the whole of a remarkable life in music. To do that more effectively, we decided to include chapters on specific composers and on his relationships with particular musicians, opera companies and orchestras.
This book is neither a conventional biography, nor is it a symposium, but it aims to combine elements of both: chapters on periods in Mackerras's career are interwoven with more specialised essays and shorter contributions which aim to illuminate his approach to music-making from those who saw it at close quarters. To do this effectively, we asked a number of people who worked closely with Mackerras to write about their collaborations with him. The response from all those we asked was unfailingly positive, and their contributions are informative as well as affectionate, helping the reader to understand more fully how he worked and some of the life-long musical enthusiasms that drove him.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between attentional style profiles of cricketers as measured by Nideffer's (1977) Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) and a performance component, playing level. A method of scoring and comparing attentional style profiles was developed. Cricket players (N = 68) at three different skill levels served as subjects. Results revealed that higher level players exhibited a higher proportion of profiles predicted to be associated with superior performance in fast-ball games, and lower proportions of inappropriate profiles, than the lowest playing levels subjects. The present results provide support for the use of attentional profile scores as a predictor of sport performance.
Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences.
We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults.
The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR.
The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.
This paper presents a preliminary comparison between the role of computer-aided design (CAD) and sketching in engineering through a case study of a senior design project and interviews with industry and academia. The design team consisted of four senior level mechanical engineering students each with less than 1 year of professional experience are observed while completing an industry sponsored mechanical engineering capstone design project across a 17 week semester. Factors investigated include what CAD tools are used, when in the design process they are implemented, the justification for their use from the students' perspectives, the actual knowledge gained from their use, the impact on the final designed artifact, and the contributions of any sketches generated. At each design step, comparisons are made between CAD and sketching. The students implemented CAD tools at the onset of the project, generally failing to realize gains in design efficiency or effectiveness in the early conceptual phases of the design process. As the design became more concrete, the team was able to recognize clear gains in both efficiency and effectiveness through the use of computer assisted design programs. This study is augmented by interviews with novice and experienced industry users and academic instructors to align the trends observed in the case study with industry practice and educational emphasis. A disconnect in the perceived capability of CAD tools was found between novice and experienced user groups. Opinions on the importance of sketching skills differed between novice educators and novice industry professionals, suggesting that there is a change of opinion as to the importance of sketching formed when recent graduates transition from academia to industry. The results suggest that there is a need to emphasize the importance of sketching and a deeper understanding as to the true utility of CAD tools at each stage of the design process.