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This study aimed to assess the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13) on the molecular epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children from Andalusia. A population-based prospective surveillance study was conducted on IPD in children aged <14 years from Andalusia (2018–2020). Pneumococcal invasive isolates collected between 2006 and 2009 in the two largest tertiary hospitals in Andalusia were used as pre-PCV13 controls for comparison of serotype/genotype distribution. Overall IPD incidence rate was 3.55 cases per 100 000 in 2018; increased non-significantly to 4.20 cases per 100 000 in 2019 and declined in 2020 to 1.69 cases per 100 000 (incidence rate ratio 2020 vs. 2019: 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20–0.89, P = 0.01). Proportion of IPD cases due to PCV13 serotypes in 2018–2020 was 28% (P = 0.0001 for comparison with 2006–2009). Serotypes 24F (15%) and 11A (8.3%) were the most frequently identified non-PCV13 serotypes (NVT) in 2018–2020. Penicillin- and/or ampicillin-resistant clones mostly belonged to clonal complex 156 (serotype 14-ST156 and ST2944 and serotype 11A-ST6521). The proportion of IPD cases caused by PCV13 serotypes declined significantly after the initiation of the PCV13 vaccination programme in 2016. Certain NVT, such as serotypes 24F and 11A, warrant future monitoring in IPD owing to invasive potential and/or antibiotic resistance rates.
Chapter 10, in contrast to all the previous chapters that focused on the performance of the downlink, analyzes the performance of the uplink of an ultra-dense network. Importantly, this chapter shows that the phenomena presented in – and the conclusions derived from – all the previous chapters also apply to the uplink, despite its different features, e.g. uplink transmit power control, inter-cell interference source distribution. System-level simulations are used in this chapter to conduct the study.
Chapter 9, using the new capacity scaling law presented in the previous chapter, explores three relevant network optimization problems: i) the small cell base station deployment/activation problem, ii) the network-wide user equipment admission/scheduling problem, and iii) the spatial spectrum reuse problem. These problems are formally presented, and exemplary solutions are provided, with the corresponding discussion on the intuition behind the proposed solutions.
Chapter 11 shows the benefits of dynamic time division duplexing with respect to a more static time division duplexing assignment of time resources in an ultra-dense network. As studied in previous chapters, the amount of user equipment per small cell reduces significantly in a denser network. As a result, a dynamic assignment of time resources to the downlink and the uplink according to the load in each small cell can avoid resource waste, and significantly enhance its capacity. The dynamic time division duplexing protocol is modelled and analyzed through system-level simulations in this chapter too, and its performance carefully examined.
Chapter 3 summarizes the modelling, derivations and main findings of probably one of the most important works on small cell theoretical performance analysis, which concluded that the fears of an inter-cell interference overload in small cell networks were not well-grounded, and that the network capacity – or in more technical words, the area spectral efficiency – linearly grows with the number of deployed small cells. This research was the cornerstone of much of the research that followed on small cells performance analysis.
Chapter 1 introduces the capacity challenge faced by modern wireless communication systems and presents ultra-dense wireless networks as an appealing solution to address it. Moreover, it provides background on the small cell concept – the fundamental building block of an ultra-dense wireless network – describing its main characteristics, benefits and drawbacks. This chapter also presents the structure of the book and the fundamental concepts required for its systematic understanding.
Chapter 6 brings attention to another important feature of ultra-dense networks, i.e. the surplus of the number of small cell base stations with respect to the amount of user equipment. Building on this fact and looking ahead at next generation small cell base stations, the ability to go into idle mode, transmit no signalling meanwhile, and thus mitigate inter-cell interference is presented in this chapter, as a key tool to enhance ultra-dense network performance and combat the previously presented caveats. Special attention is paid to the upgraded modelling and analysis of the idle mode capability at the small cell base stations.
Chapter 5 studies in detail – and also from a theoretical perspective – yet another and more important caveat towards a satisfactory network performance in the ultra-dense regime, i.e. that of the impact of the antenna height difference between the user equipment and the small cell base stations. Similarly as in the previous chapter, such antenna-related modelling upgrades, the new derivations in a three-dimensional space and the new obtained results are carefully presented and discussed in this book chapter for the better understanding of the readers. Moreover, several small cell deployment and configuration guidelines are provided to improve the network performance.
Chapter 2 introduces the need for wireless network performance analysis tools to drive optimal network deployments and set optimal parameter values and describes the main building blocks and models of any wireless network performance analysis tool. In more details, it focuses on i) the system-level simulation and ii) the theoretical performance analysis concepts used in this book, paying particular attention to stochastic geometry frameworks.