The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (www.bestpracticeperfusion.org) is a collaborative partnership of societies of perfusionists, professional medical societies, and interested clinicians, whose aim is to promote the continuous improvement of the delivery of care and outcomes for patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. Despite the many advances made throughout the history of cardiopulmonary bypass, significant variation in practice and potential for complication remains. To help address this issue, the International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion has joined the Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to develop a list of complications in congenital cardiac surgery related to extracorporeal circulation conducted via cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mechanical circulatory support devices, which include ventricular assist devices and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Understanding and defining the complications that may occur related to extracorporeal circulation in congenital patients is requisite for assessing and subsequently improving the care provided to the patients we serve. The aim of this manuscript is to identify and define the myriad of complications directly related to the extracorporeal circulation of congenital patients.