To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter discusses the diagnosis, evaluation and management of common electrolyte disorders that include hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia. The signs and symptoms of moderate hyponatremia are non-specific such as generalized weakness, lethargy, nausea, vomiting, and muscle cramps. Hyponatremia is most commonly caused by an excess of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released in response to intravascular volume depletion, exacerbated by volume replacement with hypotonic fluids. Overly rapid correction of hypernatremia may lead to cerebral edema and seizure. As with hyponatremia, to ensure a safe and accurate replacement rate, serum sodium levels have to be checked frequently. Release of calcium stores in the circulation is regulated by extracellular calcium concentration, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D metabolites, and calcitonin. Mild hypomagnesemia is usually asymptomatic, but failure to correct low serum magnesium may contribute to refractory hypokalemia and hypocalcemia.