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We examined the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), procalcitonin testing and rapid blood-culture identification on hospital mortality in a prospective quality improvement project in critically ill septic adults. Secondarily, we have reported antimicrobial guideline concordance, acceptance of ASP interventions, and antimicrobial and health-resource utilization.
We evaluated the utility of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) surveillance by varying 2 parameters: admission versus weekly surveillance and perirectal swabbing versus stool sampling.
Prospective, patient-level surveillance program of incident VRE colonization.
Liver transplant surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a tertiary-care referral medical center with a high prevalence of VRE.
All patients admitted to the SICU from June to August 2015.
We conducted a point-prevalence estimate followed by admission and weekly surveillance by perirectal swabbing and/or stool sampling. Incident colonization was defined as a negative screen followed by positive surveillance. VRE was detected by culture on Remel Spectra VRE chromogenic agar. Microbiologically-confirmed VRE bloodstream infections (BSIs) were tracked for 2 months. Statistical analyses were calculated using the McNemar test, the Fisher exact test, the t test, and the χ2 test.
In total, 91 patients underwent VRE surveillance testing. The point prevalence of VRE colonization was 60.9%; VRE prevalence on admission was 30.1%. Weekly surveillance identified an additional 7 of 28 patients (25.0%) with incident colonization. VRE BSIs were more common in VRE-colonized patients than in noncolonized patients (8 of 43 vs 2 of 48; P=.028). In a direct comparison, perirectal swabs were more sensitive than stool samples in detecting VRE (64 of 67 vs 56 of 67; P=.023). Compliance with perirectal swabbing was 89% (201 of 226) compared to 56% (127 of 226) for stool collection (P≤0.001).
We recommend weekly VRE surveillance over admission-only screening in high-burden units such as liver transplant SICUs. Perirectal swabs had greater collection compliance and sensitivity than stool samples, making them the preferred methodology. Further work may have implications for antimicrobial stewardship and infection control.
Electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) that utilize existing information in databases are more efficient than conventional infection surveillance methods.
To develop an ESS for monitoring bloodstream infections (BSIs) and assess whether data obtained from the ESS were in agreement with data obtained by traditional manual medical-record review.
An ESS was developed by linking data from regional laboratory and hospital administrative databases. Definitions for excluding BSI episodes representing contamination and duplicate episodes were developed and applied. Infections were classified as nosocomial infections, healthcare-associated community-onset infections, or community-acquired infections. For a random sample of episodes, data in the ESS were compared with data obtained by independent medical chart review.
From the records of the 306 patients whose infections were selected for comparative review, the ESS identified 323 episodes of BSI, of which 107 (33%) were classified as healthcare-associated community-onset infections, 108 (33%) were classified as community-acquired infections, 107 (33%) were classified as nosocomial infections, and 1 (0.3%) could not be classified. In comparison, 310 episodes were identified by use of medical chart review, of which 116 (37%) were classified as healthcare-associated community-onset infections, 95 (31%) as community-acquired infections, and 99 (32%) as nosocomial infections. For 302 episodes of BSI, there was concordance between the findings of the ESS and those of traditional manual chart review. Of the additional 21 discordant episodes that were identified by use of the ESS, 17 (81%) were classified as representing isolation of skin contaminants, by use of chart review. Of the additional 8 discordant episodes further identified by use of chart review, most were classified as repeat or polymicrobial episodes of disease. There was an overall 85% agreement between the findings of the ESS and those of chart review (K = 0.78; standard error, K = 0.04) for classification according to location of acquisition.
Our novel ESS allows episodes of BSI to be identified and classified with a high degree of accuracy. This system requires validation in other cohorts and settings.
The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for the acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in our community.
This study used a cross-sectional design to assess patients colonized or infected with MRSA.
The study population consisted of residents of London, Ontario, Canada, who were identified as MRSA-positive for the first time in 1997.
All acute- and chronic-care hospitals, long-term healthcare facilities, and community physicians' offices in the city of London participated in the study.
Main Outcome Measure:
Incidence of MRSA in the community, risk factors for acquisition, especially previous hospitalization over a defined period, and strain type were evaluated.
In 1997, 331 residents of London were newly identified as MRSA-positive, representing an annual incidence of 100/100,000 persons (95% confidence interval, 88.8-110.7). Thirty-one (9.4%) individuals were not healthcare-facility patients in the previous month, and 11 (3.3%), 10 (3.0%), and 6 (1.8%) individuals had no such contact in the previous 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. One hundred seventy-seven strains, including five of the isolates from patients with no healthcare-facility contact in the previous year, were typed. One hundred sixty (90.3%) of these isolates, including all typed strains from patients with no healthcare facility contact, belonged to a single clone.
These findings demonstrate that the incidence of MRSA is higher than previously reported and that hospital contact is the single most important risk factor for the acquisition of MRSA in our community. Screening for MRSA in previously hospitalized patients at the time of hospitalization may reduce nosocomial spread and indirectly reduce the incidence of MRSA in the community.
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