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Capillary refill time (CRT) is an indicator of peripheral circulation and is recommended in the 2021 guidelines for treating and managing sepsis.
This study developed a portable device to realize objective CRT measurement. Assuming that peripheral blood flow obstruction by the artery occlusion test (AOT) or venous occlusion test (VOT) increases the CRT, the cut-off value for peripheral circulatory failure was studied by performing a comparative analysis with CRT with no occlusion test (No OT).
Fourteen (14) healthy adults (age: 20–26 years) participated in the study. For the vascular occlusion test, a sphygmomanometer was placed on the left upper arm of the participant in the supine position, and a pressure of 30mmHg higher than the systolic pressure was applied for AOT, a pressure of 60mmHg was applied for VOT, respectively, and no pressure was applied for No OT. The CRT was measured from the index finger of the participant’s left hand.
Experimental results revealed that CRT was significantly longer in the AOT and did not differ significantly in the VOT. The cut-off value for peripheral circulatory failure was found to be 2.88 seconds based on Youden’s index by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with AOT as positive and No OT as negative.
Significant results were obtained in a previous study on the evaluation of septic shock patients when CRT > three seconds was considered abnormal, and the cut-off value for peripheral circulatory failure in the current study validated this.
Sea ice, which forms in polar and nonpolar areas, transmits light to ice-associated (sympagic) algal communities. To noninvasively study the distribution of sea-ice algae, empirical relations to estimate its biomass from under-ice hyperspectral irradiance have been developed in the Arctic and Antarctica but lack for nonpolar regions. This study examines relationships between normalised difference indices (NDI) calculated from hyperspectral transmittance and sympagic algal biomass in the nonpolar Saroma-ko Lagoon. We analysed physico-biogeochemical properties of snow and land-fast sea ice supporting 27 paired bio-optical measurements along three transects covering an area of over 250 m × 250 m in February 2019. Snow depth (0.08 ± 0.01 m) and ice-bottom brine volume fraction (0.21 ± 0.02) showed low (0.06) and high (0.58) correlations with sea-ice core bottom section chlorophyll a (Chl. a), respectively. Spatial analyses unveiled the patch size of sea-ice Chl. a to be ~65 m, which is in the same range reported from previous studies. A selected NDI (669, 596 nm) explained 63% of algal biomass variability. This reflects the bio-optical properties and environmental conditions of the lagoon that favour the wavelength pair in the orange/red part of the spectrum and suggests the necessity of a specific bio-optical relationship for Saroma-ko Lagoon.
The effect of freshwater sources on wintertime sea-ice CO2 processes was studied from the glacier front to the outer Tempelfjorden, Svalbard, in sea ice, glacier ice, brine and snow. March–April 2012 was mild, and the fjord was mainly covered with drift ice, in contrast to the observed thicker fast ice in the colder April 2013. This resulted in different physical and chemical properties of the sea ice and under-ice water. Data from stable oxygen isotopic ratios and salinity showed that the sea ice at the glacier front in April 2012 contained on average 54% of frozen-in glacial meltwater. This was five times higher than in April 2013, where the ice was frozen seawater. In April 2012, the largest excess of sea-ice total alkalinity (AT), carbonate ion ([CO32−]) and bicarbonate ion concentrations ([HCO3−]) relative to salinity was mainly related to dissolved dolomite and calcite incorporated during freezing of mineral-enriched glacial water. In April 2013, the excess of these variables was mainly due to ikaite dissolution as a result of sea-ice processes. Dolomite dissolution increased sea-ice AT twice as much as ikaite and calcite dissolution, implying different buffering capacity and potential for ocean CO2 uptake in a changing climate.
Although the effects of snow during sea-ice growth have been investigated for sea ice which is thick enough to accommodate dry snow, those for thin sea ice have not been paid much attention due to the difficulty in observing them. Observations are complicated by the presence of slush and its subsequent freeze-up, and the surface heat budget might be sensitive to the additional ice thickness. An onsite short-term land fast sea-ice freeze-up experiment in the Saroma-ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, Japan was carried out to examine the effects of snowfall on the structure and surface heat budget of thin sea ice, based on observational results and a 1-D thermodynamic model. We found that snowfall contributes to the solidification of the surface slush layer, contributing ice thickness that is comparable to the snowfall amount and affecting the crystal texture significantly. On the other hand, the basal ice growth rate and turbulent heat flux were not significantly affected, being <3.1 × 10−8 m s−1 and 3 W m−2, respectively. This finding may validate the omission in past studies of snow effect in estimating ice production rates in polynyas and has implications about the reconstruction of growth history from sample analysis.
This work presents the results of physical and biological investigations at 27 biogeochemical stations of early winter sea ice in the Ross Sea during the 2017 PIPERS cruise. Only two similar cruises occurred in the past, in 1995 and 1998. The year 2017 was a specific year, in that ice growth in the Central Ross Sea was considerably delayed, compared to previous years. These conditions resulted in lower ice thicknesses and Chl-a burdens, as compared to those observed during the previous cruises. It also resulted in a different structure of the sympagic algal community, unusually dominated by Phaeocystis rather than diatoms. Compared to autumn-winter sea ice in the Weddell Sea (AWECS cruise), the 2017 Ross Sea pack ice displayed similar thickness distribution, but much lower snow cover and therefore nearly no flooding conditions. It is shown that contrasted dynamics of autumnal-winter sea-ice growth between the Weddell Sea and the Ross Sea impacted the development of the sympagic community. Mean/median ice Chl-a concentrations were 3–5 times lower at PIPERS, and the community status there appeared to be more mature (decaying?), based on Phaeopigments/Chl-a ratios. These contrasts are discussed in the light of temporal and spatial differences between the two cruises.
A method to remove small CuKβ peaks and step structures caused by NiK-edge absorption as well as CuKα2 sub-peaks from powder diffraction intensity data measured with Cu-target X-ray source and Ni-foil filter is proposed. The method is based on deconvolution–convolution treatment applying scale transform of abscissa, Fourier transform, and a realistic spectroscopic model for the source X-ray. The validity of the method has been tested by analysis of the powder diffraction data of a standard LaB6 powder (NIST SRM660a) sample, collected with the combination of CuKα X-ray source, Ni-foil Kβ filter, flat powder specimen and one-dimensional Si strip detector. The diffraction intensity data treated with the method have certainly shown background intensity profile without CuKβ peaks and NiK-edge step structures.
Four series of small parasite peaks observed in powder diffraction data recorded with a Cu-target X-ray tube and a Ni filter on the diffracted beam side in Bragg–Brentano geometry are investigated. One series of the parasite peaks is assigned to the tungsten Lα-emission. Other three types of the parasite peak series are likely to be caused by the K-emissions of Ni, but the peak locations are deviated from those predicted by the Bragg's law. An empirical formula to locate the parasite peaks and a method to remove them from observed powder diffraction data are proposed. The method is based on the whole-pattern deconvolution–convolution treatment on the transformed scale of abscissa. The parameters optimized for the diffraction data measured for Si powder has been applied on treatment of the data of LaB6 powder recorded under the same experimental conditions. It has been confirmed that the parasite peaks in the observed data can effectively be removed by the deconvolution treatment with parameters determined by a reference measurement.
An improved method to correct observed shift and asymmetric deformation of diffraction peak profile caused by the axial-divergence aberration in Bragg–Brentano geometry is proposed. The method is based on deconvolution–convolution treatment applying scale transform of abscissa, Fourier transform, and cumulant analysis of an analytical model for the axial-divergence aberration. The method has been applied to the powder diffraction data of a standard LaB6 powder (NIST SRM660a) sample, collected with a one-dimensional Si strip detector. The locations, widths and shape of the peaks in the deconvolved–convolved powder diffraction data have been analyzed. The finally obtained whole powder diffraction pattern ranging from 10° to 145° in diffraction angle has been simulated by the Pawley method applying a symmetric Pearson VII peak profile model to each peak with ten background, two peak-shift, three line-width, and two peak-shape parameters, and the Rp value of the best fit has been estimated at 4.4%.
Absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in sea ice and surface waters in the southern Sea of Okhotsk was examined. Sea-water CDOM had featureless absorption increasing exponentially with shorter wavelengths. Sea ice showed distinct absorption peaks in the ultraviolet, especially in younger ice. Older first-year sea ice had relatively flat absorption spectra in the ultraviolet range. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified five fluorescent CDOM components, two humic-like and three protein-like. Sea water was largely governed by humic-like fluorescence. In sea ice, protein-like fluorescence was found in considerable excess relative to sea water. The accumulation of protein-like CDOM fluorescence in sea ice is likely a result of biological activity within the ice. Nevertheless, sea ice does not contribute excess CDOM during melt, but the material released will be of different composition than that present in the underlying waters. Thus, at least transiently, the CDOM introduced during sea-ice melt might provide a more labile source of fresher protein-like DOM to surface waters in the southern Sea of Okhotsk.
Accurately measuring and monitoring the thickness distribution of thin ice is crucial for accurate estimation of ocean–atmosphere heat fluxes and rates of ice production and salt flux in ice-affected oceans. Here we present results from helicopter-borne brightness temperature (TB) measurements in the Southern Ocean in October 2012 and in the Sea of Okhotsk in February 2009 carried out with a portable passive microwave (PMW) radiometer operating at a frequency of 36 GHz. The goal of these measurements is to aid evaluation of a satellite thin-ice thickness algorithm which uses data from the spaceborne Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System AMSR-E) or the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-II (AMSR-II). AMSR-E and AMSR-II TB agree with the spatially collocated mean TB from the helicopter-borne measurements within the radiometers’ precision. In the Sea of Okhotsk in February 2009, the AMSR-E 36GHz TB values are closer to the mean than the modal TB values measured by the helicopter-borne radiometer. In an Antarctic coastal polynya in October 2012, the polarization ratio of 36GHz vertical and horizontal TB is estimated to be 0.137 on average. Our measurements of the TB at 36 GHz over an iceberg tongue suggest a way to discriminate it from sea ice by its unique PMW signature.
We identified ikaite crystals (CaCO3·6H2O) and examined their shape and size distribution in first-year Arctic pack ice, overlying snow and slush layers during the spring melt onset north of Svalbard. Additional measurements of total alkalinity (TA) were made for melted snow and sea-ice samples. Ikaite crystals were mainly found in the bottom of the snowpack, in slush and the surface layers of the sea ice where the temperature was generally lower and salinity higher than in the ice below. Image analysis showed that ikaite crystals were characterized by a roughly elliptical shape and a maximum caliper diameter of 201.0±115.9 μm (n = 918). Since the ice-melting season had already started, ikaite crystals may already have begun to dissolve, which might explain the lack of a relationship between ikaite crystal size and sea-ice parameters (temperature, salinity, and thickness of snow and ice). Comparisons of salinity and TA profiles for melted ice samples suggest that the precipitation/dissolution of ikaite crystals occurred at the top of the sea ice and the bottom of the snowpack during ice formation/melting processes.
We performed an artificial pool experiment in the Antarctic multi-year land-fast ice to examine and simulate the effect of sea ice melting on physical and biogeochemical components of the sea ice field. The input of snow and ice meltwater resulted in warmer, low salinity water at the surface of the pool and probably stratification of the less dense water. Current speed measurements also pointed to water stratification within the pool. Rapid phytoplankton growth in the pool resulted in drastic decreases in concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and nutrients (NO3- and Si(OH)4) in the surface waters of the pool, particularly depleted for NO3-. There was high correlation between variations of dissolved inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations, but the apparent uptake ratios of these components deviated from that generally applied to marine phytoplankton. The sequence of changes in the physical and biogeochemical components of the pool water suggests that the onset of rapid phytoplankton growth was closely related to the water stratification, which provided stable conditions for phytoplankton bloom even though the supply of nutrients from under-ice water would have declined.
Bromoform concentrations in water of the slush layer that developed at the interface between snow and sea ice were measured during the seasonal warming in Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. Mean bromoform concentration was 5.5 ± 2.4 pmol l-1, which was lower than that of the under-ice water (10.9 ± 3.5 pmol l-1). Temporal decrease in bromoform concentrations and salinity with increasing temperature of the slush water suggest that the bromoform concentrations were reduced through dilution with meltwater input from the upper surface of sea ice. In contrast, bromoform concentrations in the under-ice water increased during this period while the salinity of the under-ice water decreased. It is speculated that the sea ice meltwater input contained high bromoform concentrations from the brine channels within the sea ice and from the bottom of the ice that were contributed to the increased bromoform concentrations in the under-ice water.
Surface ponds on Antarctic fast ice were examined by measuring temperature, salinity and concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients (NO3 + NO2, PO4 and SiO2) in the surface pond water and under-ice water. Sea-ice cores were also collected from the bottom of a surface pond (pond-ice core) and from a site away from the pond (bare-ice core). Time-series measurements of surface pond water temperature showed that it varied with solar radiation rather than with air temperature. Comparison of water properties between surface pond water and under-ice water suggested that DIC and nutrients were consumed by biological productivity during pond formation. Depth profiles of nutrient concentrations in the pond-ice core suggested the remineralization of organic matter at the bottom of the surface pond. The Chl-a concentration was lower at the bottom of the pond-ice core than in the bare-ice core, suggesting that surface pond formation reduces ice algae abundance in sea ice because meltwater flushes algae from the porous sea ice into the under-ice water.
The air–sea-ice CO2 flux was measured in the ice-covered Saroma-ko, a lagoon on the northeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, using a chamber technique. The air–sea-ice CO2 flux ranged from −1.8 to +0.5 mg C m−2 h−1 (where negative values indicate a sink for atmospheric CO2). The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the brine of sea ice was substantially lower than that of the atmosphere, primarily because of the influence of the under-ice plume from the Saromabetsu river located in the southeastern part of the lagoon. This suggests that the brine had the ability to take up atmospheric CO2 into the sea ice. However, the snow deposited over the sea ice and the superimposed ice that formed from snowmelting and refreezing partially blocked CO2 diffusion, acting as an impermeable medium for CO2 transfer. Our results suggest that the air–sea-ice CO2 flux was dependent not only on the difference in pCO2 between the brine and the overlying air, but also on the status of the ice surface. These results provide the necessary evidence for evaluation of the gas exchange processes in ice-covered seas.
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