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While adolescent-onset schizophrenia (ADO-SCZ) and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder with psychosis (psychotic ADO-BPD) present a more severe clinical course than their adult forms, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we study potentially state- and trait-related white matter diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) abnormalities along the adolescent-onset psychosis continuum to address this need.
Forty-eight individuals with ADO-SCZ (20 female/28 male), 15 individuals with psychotic ADO-BPD (7 female/8 male), and 35 healthy controls (HCs, 18 female/17 male) underwent dMRI and clinical assessments. Maps of extracellular free-water (FW) and fractional anisotropy of cellular tissue (FAT) were compared between individuals with psychosis and HCs using tract-based spatial statistics and FSL's Randomise. FAT and FW values were extracted, averaged across all voxels that demonstrated group differences, and then utilized to test for the influence of age, medication, age of onset, duration of illness, symptom severity, and intelligence.
Individuals with adolescent-onset psychosis exhibited pronounced FW and FAT abnormalities compared to HCs. FAT reductions were spatially more widespread in ADO-SCZ. FW increases, however, were only present in psychotic ADO-BPD. In HCs, but not in individuals with adolescent-onset psychosis, FAT was positively related to age.
We observe evidence for cellular (FAT) and extracellular (FW) white matter abnormalities in adolescent-onset psychosis. Although cellular white matter abnormalities were more prominent in ADO-SCZ, such alterations may reflect a shared trait, i.e. neurodevelopmental pathology, present across the psychosis spectrum. Extracellular abnormalities were evident in psychotic ADO-BPD, potentially indicating a more dynamic, state-dependent brain reaction to psychosis.
The NIH Center for Accelerated Innovations at Cleveland Clinic (NCAI-CC) was funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to support academic investigators in technology development and commercialization. NCAI-CC was one of three multi-institutional Centers established in the fall of 2013. The goal of each Center was to catalyze the growth of an ecosystem of commercialization within their affiliated institutions and regions by managing a program of funding and guiding translational project development and by delivering commercialization education programs to participating investigators. NCAI-CC created and managed such a funding program, ultimately supporting 75 different projects across seven separate academic institutions and developed tailored educational content following the National Science Foundation I-Corps™ curriculum and delivered the program to 79 teams from 12 institutions. We determined early on that in establishment and implementation of projects, it is important to support the teams and principal investigators throughout the program. The support includes a change in principal investigator mindset from specific aims orientation to goals and deliverables on projects. Our skills development efforts emphasized commercialization and a deep understanding of customer needs for new technology adoption. Here, we review our experiences, outcomes, and insights, including the challenges identified in program implementation.
The stellar magnetic field completely dominates the environment around late-type stars. It is responsible for driving the coronal high-energy radiation (e.g. EUV/X-rays), the development of stellar winds, and the generation transient events such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While progress has been made for the first two processes, our understanding of the eruptive behavior in late-type stars is still very limited. One example of this is the fact that despite the frequent and highly energetic flaring observed in active stars, direct evidence for stellar CMEs is almost non-existent. Here we discuss realistic 3D simulations of stellar CMEs, analyzing their resulting properties in contrast with solar eruptions, and use them to provide a common framework to interpret the available stellar observations. Additionally, we present results from the first 3D CME simulations in M-dwarf stars, with emphasis on possible observable signatures imprinted in the stellar corona.
Layer A in the Hayonim Cave in the western Galilee is an accumulation of ashes and dung caused by penned flocks since the 3rd century AD. A 2nd century AD glass furnace was found, dug into the Natufian deposits below (Layer B). Five Natufian occupation phases were characterized by a series of small rounds built from brought-in rocks. Burials including decorated individuals, a collection of incised limestone slabs and bone objects, rich assemblages of marine shells, bone pendants bone tools together with abundant lithics characterize the Natufian remains. At the entrance to the cave the Natufian dug into the Kebaran deposit (Layer C) and inside the cave into Aurignacian occupation (Layer D). Fortunately the later preserved a typical European-style lithic industry and an assemblage of bone and antler objects. The Late Mousterian, poorly represented, overlies rich occupations with lithic assemblages resembling Qafzeh cave. The latter cover with minimal interruptions a rich Early Mousterian deposit characterized by (many) retouched elongated blade blanks and points, (Layers E and F). Layer G, an Acheulo-Yabrudian, was tested in the deep sounding but bedrock was not attained.
Long after its alleged demise, phlogiston was still presented, discussed and defended by leading chemists. Even some of the leading proponents of the new chemistry admitted its ‘absolute existence’. We demonstrate that what was defended under the title ‘phlogiston’ was no longer a particular hypothesis about combustion and respiration. Rather, it was a set of ontological and epistemological assumptions and the empirical practices associated with them. Lavoisier's gravimetric reduction, in the eyes of the phlogistians, annihilated the autonomy of chemistry together with its peculiar concepts of chemical substance and quality, chemical process and chemical affinity. The defence of phlogiston was the defence of a distinctly chemical conception of matter and its appearances, a conception which reflected the chemist's acquaintance with details and particularities of substances, properties and processes and his skills of adducing causal relations from the interplay between their complexity and uniformity.
We propose using macroporous silicon as an ultra-high aspect ratio scaffolding for epitaxially grown thermoelectric materials, so that thin films can be shaped into materials thick enough for practical devices. The self-limiting nature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) makes it an ideal growth technique for this substrate, as uniform thickness can be obtained at all points inside the macroporous structure, and we demonstrate successful deposition of antimony telluride on pore walls using ALD. Extension of this work to telluride superlattices should enable fabrication of thermoelectric devices with figures of merit (ZT) in excess of 2. Characterization of the thermoelectric and other properties of ALD grown telluride on silicon is ongoing.
The attraction of several adult predators, genera Elatophilus, Hemerobius and Sympherobius, to the sex pheromones of pine bast scales, Matsucoccus Cockerell, has already been demonstrated. Here, the hypothesis that the larvae of these predators are similarly attracted to the host prey sex pheromone is tested. The response of predators was tested in field trials using pine tree arenas baited with the sex pheromones of M. josephi Bodenheimer & Harpaz, M. feytaudi Ducasse and M. matsumurae Kuwana. Experiments were conducted in Israel in stands of Pinus halepensis infested by M. josephi and in Portugal in stands of P. pinaster infested by M. feytaudi, respectively. The selectivity of larvae for the three sex pheromones was tested in Petri dish arenas in the laboratory. In the field, the larval stages exhibited similar modes of attraction to those of the conspecific adults: Elatophilus hebraicus Pericart in Aleppo pine forest, E. crassicornis Reuter and Hemerobius stigma Stephens in the maritime pine forests. Laboratory choice tests confirmed the kairomonal selectivity of larvae. Both forest and laboratory tests demonstrated the response of a coccinellid of the genus Rhyzobius to the sex pheromones of M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae. A unique chemical communication system among several taxa of predators of Matsucoccus spp. was highlighted that may be attributed to their coevolution on a geological time scale.
Fabrication of functional devices in fibers by thermal drawing requires a material identification scheme and challenging composite material processing. A macroscopic preform rod containing metallic, semiconducting and insulating constituents in a variety of geometries and close contact leads to kilometer-long novel optoelectronic, and thermal mesoscopic fiber devices. The preform-to-fiber approach yields spectrally tunable photodetectors and integrated self-monitoring fibers.
Hydrodynamic instabilities, such as the Rayleigh–Taylor
and Richtmyer–Meshkov instabilities, play a central
role when trying to achieve net thermonuclear fusion energy
via the method of inertial confinement fusion
(ICF). The development of hydrodynamic instabilities on
both sides of the compressed shell may cause shell breakup
and ignition failure. A newly developed statistical mechanics
model describing the evolution of the turbulent mixing
zone from an initial random perturbation is presented.
The model will be shown to compare very well both with
full numerical simulations and with experiments, performed
using high power laser systems, and using shock tubes.
Applying the model to typical ICF implosion conditions,
an estimation of the maximum allowed target, in-flight
aspect ratio as a function of equivalent surface roughness,
will be derived.
The nonlinear stage in the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in three dimensions (3D) is studied using a 3D multimaterial hydrodynamic code. The growth of a single classical 3D square and rectangular modes is compared to the growth in planar and cylindrical geometries and found to be close to the corresponding cylindrical mode, which is in agreement with a new Layzer-type model for 3D bubble growth. The Atwood number effect on the final shape of the instability is demonstrated. Calculations in spherical geometry of the late deceleration stage of a typical ICF pellet have been performed. The different late time shapes obtained are shown to be a result of the initial conditions and the high Atwood number. Finally, preliminary results of calculations of two-mode coupling and random perturbations growth in 3D are presented.
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