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This chapter seeks to investigate the nature of strategic capabilities required for Indian firms to successfully transcend domestic markets and venture abroad. The study is based on intensive case studies of four Indian firms in the manufacturing and services sectors. The findings indicates that the capabilities considered most important by the firm leaders for the internationalization of their activities were ability to develop resources internally, entrepreneurship, and ability to adjust to poor infrastructure need. Three interesting patterns also emerged in the way firms choose to expand their operations to other markets: capability complementing, capability augmenting, and new capability development. Overall, the study indicates that the competencies required to succeed are also significantly influenced by the industry type and prior history of internationalization by associated companies. To gain a better understanding of these issues it would be necessary to moderate for industry, size, and ownership effects.
Longitudinal studies of first episode of psychosis (FEP) patients are critical to understanding the dynamic clinical factors influencing functional outcomes; negative symptoms and verbal memory (VM) deficits are two such factors that remain a therapeutic challenge. This study uses white-gray matter contrast at the inner edge of the cortex, in addition to cortical thickness, to probe changes in microstructure and their relation with negative symptoms and possible intersections with verbal memory.
T1-weighted images and clinical data were collected longitudinally for patients (N = 88) over a two-year period. Cognitive data were also collected at baseline. Relationships between baseline VM (immediate/delayed recall) and rate of change in two negative symptom dimensions, amotivation and expressivity, were assessed at the behavioral level, as well as at the level of brain structure.
VM, particularly immediate recall, was significantly and positively associated with a steeper rate of expressivity symptom decline (r = 0.32, q = 0.012). Significant interaction effects between baseline delayed recall and change in expressivity were uncovered in somatomotor regions bilaterally for both white-gray matter contrast and cortical thickness. Furthermore, interaction effects between immediate recall and change in expressivity on cortical thickness rates were uncovered across higher-order regions of the language processing network.
This study shows common neural correlates of language-related brain areas underlying expressivity and VM in FEP, suggesting deficits in these domains may be more linked to speech production rather than general cognitive capacity. Together, white-gray matter contrast and cortical thickness may optimally inform clinical investigations aiming to capture peri-cortical microstructural changes.
Organizations and businesses strive toward excellence, and solutions to problems are based mostly on judgment and experience. However, increased competition and consumer demands require that the solutions be optimum and not just feasible. Theory leads to algorithms. Algorithms need to be translated into computer codes. Engineering problems need to be modeled. Optimum solutions are obtained using theory and computers, and then interpreted. Revised and expanded in its third edition, this textbook integrates theory, modeling, development of numerical methods, and problem solving, thus preparing students to apply optimization to real-world problems. This text covers a broad variety of optimization problems using: unconstrained, constrained, gradient, and non-gradient techniques; duality concepts; multi-objective optimization; linear, integer, geometric, and dynamic programming with applications; and finite element-based optimization. It is ideal for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses in optimization design and for practicing engineers.