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Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
P values and confidence intervals (CIs) are the most widely used statistical indices in scientific literature. Several surveys have revealed that these two indices are generally misunderstood. However, existing surveys on this subject fall under psychology and biomedical research, and data from other disciplines are rare. Moreover, the confidence of researchers when constructing judgments remains unclear. To fill this research gap, we surveyed 1,479 researchers and students from different fields in China. Results reveal that for significant (i.e., p < .05, CI does not include zero) and non-significant (i.e., p > .05, CI includes zero) conditions, most respondents, regardless of academic degrees, research fields and stages of career, could not interpret p values and CIs accurately. Moreover, the majority were confident about their (inaccurate) judgements (see osf.io/mcu9q/ for raw data, materials, and supplementary analyses). Therefore, as misinterpretations of p values and CIs prevail in the whole scientific community, there is a need for better statistical training in science.
Three-dimensional integrated circuits (3-D ICs), in the form of a vertical stack of several interconnected device layers, have many performance, form factor, and integration advantages. The main objective of this work is to develop reliable process technology to enable the fabrication of a vertically interconnected silicon multi-layer stack.
Low temperature wafer bonding processes, both copper thermo-compression bonding and silicon dioxide fusion bonding, are studied extensively as key enabling technology. Cu thermo-compression bonding is studied for its feasibility as a permanent bond between active layers in a multi-layer stack. Silicon dioxide wafer bonding, on the other hand, is used as a temporary bond to attach a donor wafer to a handle wafer during donor wafer thinning and subsequent layer transfer. Sufficiently high bond strength is obtained with careful surface preparation and activation prior to bonding.
Silicon layer can be stacked either in a “face down” or “face up” orientation. Using a combination of wafer bonding and thinning, double-layer stacks in both orientations are fabricated. By repeating these steps on two “face down” double-layer stacks, a four-layer stack is successful demonstrated.
This paper describes the results of an investigation of modified synthetic protocols to produce monodispersed magnetic ferrite nanoparticles, γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4, and their magnetic properties. The synthesis involved thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors followed by oxidation or reduction. In the synthesis of γ-Fe2O3, iron pentacarbonyl was used as the precursor and trimethylamine oxide as the oxidant. In the synthesis of Fe3O4, iron (III) acetylacetonate was reduced by 1, 2-hexadecanediol. The particle sizes ranged from 5–15 nm with high monodispersity. Results from TEM, XPS, and SQUID characterizations of these iron oxide nanoparticles are discussed.
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