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The world is astoundingly variable, and organisms – from individuals to whole communities – must respond to variability to survive. One example of nature’s variability is the fluctuations in populations of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which cycle every 35 years. In this study, we examined how a parasitoid community altered its parasitism of budworm and other caterpillar species in response to these fluctuations. Budworm and other caterpillar species were sampled from balsam fir (Pinaceae) in three plots for 14 years in Atlantic Canada, then were reared to identify any emerging parasitoids. We found that the parasitoid community generally showed an indiscriminate response (i.e., no preference, where frequencies dictated parasitism rates) to changes in budworm frequencies relative to other caterpillar species on balsam fir. We also observed changes in topology and distributions of interaction strengths between the parasitoids, budworm, and other caterpillar species as budworm frequencies fluctuated. Our study contributes to the hypothesis that hardwood trees are a critical part of the budworm–parasitoid food web, where parasitoids attack other caterpillar species on hardwood trees when budworm populations are low. Taken together, our results show that a parasitoid community collectively alters species interactions in response to variable budworm frequencies, thereby fundamentally shifting food-web pathways.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Current debates about surveillance demonstrate the complexity of political controversies whose uncertainty and moral ambiguities render normative consensus difficult to achieve. The question of how to study political controversies remains a challenge for IR scholars. Critical security studies scholars have begun to examine political controversies around surveillance by exploring changing security practices in the everyday. Yet, (de)legitimation practices have hitherto not been the focus of analysis. Following recent practice-oriented research, we develop a conceptual framework based on the notion of ‘narrative legitimation politics’. We first introduce the concept of ‘tests’ from Boltanski's pragmatic sociology to categorise the discursive context and different moral reference points (truth, reality, existence). Second, we combine pragmatic sociology with narrative analysis to enable the study of dominant justificatory practices. Third, we develop the framework through a practice-oriented exploration of the Snowden controversy with a focus on the US and Germany. We identify distinct justificatory practices in each test format linked to narrative devices (for example, plots, roles, metaphors) whose fluid, contested dynamics have the potential to effect change. The framework is particularly relevant for IR scholars interested in legitimacy issues, the normativity of practices, and the power of narratives.
Equilibrium solutions for hollow vortices in straining flow in a corner are obtained by solving a free-boundary problem. Conformal maps from a canonical doubly connected annular domain to the physical plane combining the Schottky–Klein prime function with an appropriate algebraic map lead to a problem similar to Pocklington's propagating hollow dipole. The result is a two-parameter family of solutions depending on the corner angle and on the non-dimensional ratio of strain to circulation.
The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans, mainly in the so-called developed countries, such as Europe and North America. Although large carnivore populations have generally increased in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks. Of the eight bear species inhabiting the world, two (i.e. the Andean bear and the giant panda) have never been reported to attack humans, whereas the other six species have: sun bears Helarctos malayanus, sloth bears Melursus ursinus, Asiatic black bears Ursus thibetanus, American black bears Ursus americanus, brown bears Ursus arctos, and polar bears Ursus maritimus. This chapter provides insights into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of bear attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behavior when sharing the landscape with bears are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human–bear encounters and their consequences to bear conservation.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip (THR) and knee replacements (TKR) are reported using 2 data sources: infection prevention and control (IPC), which surveys all THR and TKR using NHSN definitions and the Canadian International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10-CA) codes, and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses a systematic sampling process that involves an 8-day cycle schedule, modified NHSN definitions and current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. We compared the similarities and discrepancies in THR/TKR SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP THR/TKR SSI data at 4 hospitals was performed. SSI data were collected between September 1, 2015, and March 31, 2018. Demographic information and complex and total SSIs reported by IPC and NSQIP were compared for both THR and TKR surgeries. To determine whether both data sources reported similar trends over time, total SSIs by quarter were compared. Univariate analyses using a t test for age and the χ2 test for gender for complex SSIs and total SSIs was performed. The Pearson correlation and the Shapiro-Wilk test were used to assess the THR and TKR trends between the 2 data sources. A P value of <.05 was considered significant. Results: Following the removal of duplicates and missing data, 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, were compared. Age, gender, and other demographic parameters were not significantly different. Total THR and TKR SSIs per 100 procedures using NSQIP data were significantly higher than the same rates using IPC data: THR, 2.25 versus 0.92 (P < .05) and TKR, 3.43 versus 1.26 (P < .05). Both IPC and NSQIP data indicated increasing total THR SSI rates over time, but with different magnitudes (r = 0.658). For total TKR SSI, the IPC rate decreased, whereas the NSQIP rate increased over the same period (r = 0.374). When superficial SSIs were excluded, the rates reported between IPC and NSQIP data by hospital and by procedure type were more comparable, with trends toward higher rates reported by NSQIP for THR than for TKR: THR, 1.19 versus 0.68 (P = 0.15) and TKR, 0.92 versus 0.80 (P = .68). Conclusions: Different approaches used to monitor SSIs following surgeries may lead to different results and trend patterns. NSQIP reports total SSI rates that are significantly higher than the IPC Alberta orthopedic population predominantly as a result of increased identification of superficial SSIs. Because the diagnosis of superficial SSIs may be less reliable, SSI reporting should focus on complex infections.
Background: The standardized infection ratio (SIR) is the nationally adopted metric used to track and compare catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and central-line– associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Despite its widespread use, the SIR may not be suitable for all settings and may not capture all catheter harm. Our objective was to look at the correlation between SIR and device use for CAUTIs and CLABSIs across community hospitals in a regional network. Methods: We compared SIR and SUR (standardized utilization ratio) for CAUTIs and CLABSIs across 43 hospitals in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network (DICON) using a scatter plot and calculated an R2 value. Hospitals were stratified into large (>70,000 patient days), medium (30,000–70,000 patient days), and small hospitals (<30,000 patient days) based on DICON’s benchmarking for community hospitals. Results: We reviewed 24 small, 11 medium, and 8 large hospitals within DICON. Scatter plots for comparison of SIRs and SURs for CLABSIs and CAUTIs across our network hospitals are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. We detected a weak positive overall correlation between SIR and SUR for CLABSIs (0.33; R2 = 0.11), but no correlation between SIR and SUR for CAUTIs (−0.07; R2 = 0.00). Of 15 hospitals with SUR >1, 7 reported SIR <1 for CLABSIs, whereas 10 of 13 hospitals with SUR >1 reported SIR <1 for CAUTIs. Smaller hospitals showed a better correlation for CLABSI SIR and SUR (0.37) compared to medium and large hospitals (0.19 and 0.22, respectively). Conversely, smaller hospitals showed no correlation between CAUTI SIR and SUR, whereas medium and larger hospitals showed a negative correlation (−0.31 and −0.39, respectively). Conclusions: Our data reveal a weak positive correlation between SIR and SUR for CLABSIs, suggesting that central line use impacts CLABSI SIR to some extent. However, we detected no correlation between SIR and SUR for CAUTIs in smaller hospitals and a negative correlation for medium and large hospitals. Some hospitals with low CAUTI SIRs might actually have higher device use, and vice versa. Therefore, the SIR alone does not adequately reflect preventable harm related to urinary catheters. Public reporting of SIR may incentivize hospitals to focus more on urine culture stewardship rather than reducing device utilization.
Background: Chlorhexidine bathing reduces bacterial skin colonization and prevents infections in specific patient populations. As chlorhexidine use becomes more widespread, concerns about bacterial tolerance to chlorhexidine have increased; however, testing for chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is challenging. We adapted a broth microdilution (BMD) method to determine whether chlorhexidine MICs changed over time among 4 important healthcare-associated pathogens. Methods: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus from 2005 to 2019 and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae complex from 2011 to 2019) were collected through Emerging Infections Program surveillance in 2 sites (Georgia and Tennessee) or through public health reporting in 1 site (Orange County, California). A convenience sample of isolates were collected from facilities with varying amounts of chlorhexidine use. We performed BMD testing using laboratory-developed panels with chlorhexidine digluconate concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 64 μg/mL. After successfully establishing reproducibility with quality control organisms, 3 laboratories performed MIC testing. For each organism, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established using ECOFFinder. Results: Among 538 isolates tested (129 S. aureus, 158 E. coli, 142 K. pneumoniae, and 109 E. cloacae complex), S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex ECVs were 8, 4, 64, and 64 µg/mL, respectively (Table 1). Moreover, 14 isolates had an MIC above the ECV (12 E. coli and 2 E. cloacae complex). The MIC50 of each species is reported over time (Table 2). Conclusions: Using an adapted BMD method, we found that chlorhexidine MICs did not increase over time among a limited sample of S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex isolates. Although these results are reassuring, continued surveillance for elevated chlorhexidine MICs in isolates from patients with well-characterized chlorhexidine exposure is needed as chlorhexidine use increases.
Background: In Alberta, Canada, surgical site infections (SSIs) following total hip and knee replacements (THRs and TKRs) are reported using the infection prevention and control (IPC) surveillance system, which surveys all THRs and TKRs using the NHSN definitions; and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which uses different definitions and sampling strategies. Deterministic matching of patient data from these sources was used to examine the overlap and discrepancies in SSI reporting. Methods: A retrospective multisite cohort study of IPC and NSQIP superficial, deep, and organ-space THR/TKR SSI data collected 30 days postoperatively from September 1, 2015, to March 31, 2018 was undertaken. To identify patients with procedures captured by both IPC and NSQIP, data were cleaned, duplicates removed, and patients matched 1:1 using year of birth, procedure facility, type, side, date, and time. Positive and negative agreement were assessed, and the Cohen κ values were calculated. The definitions and data capture methods used by both IPC and NSQIP were also compared. Results: There were 7,549 IPC and 2,037 NSQIP patients, respectively, with 1,798 matched patients: IPC (23.8%) and NSQIP (88.3%). Moreover, 17 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP, including 9 superficial and 8 complex by IPC and 6 superficial and 11 complex by NSQIP. Also, 7 SSIs were identified only by IPC, of which 5 were superficial, and 36 SSIs were identified only by NSQIP, of which 28 were superficial (positive agreement, 0.44; negative agreement, 0.99; κ = .43). Excluding superficial SSIs, 7 SSIs were identified by both IPC and NSQIP; 3 were identified only by IPC; and 12 were identified only by NSQIP (positive agreement, 0.48; negative agreement, 1.00; κ = 0.48). Conclusions: THR/TKR SSI rates reported by IPC and NSQIP were not comparable in this matched dataset. NSQIP identifies more superficial SSIs. Variations in data capture methods and definitions accounted for most of the discordance. Both surveillance systems are critically involved with improving patient outcomes following surgery. However, stakeholders need to be aware of these variations, and education should be provided to facilitate an understanding of the differences and their interpretation. Future work should explore other surgical procedures and larger data sets.
The criteria for objective memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are vaguely defined. Aggregating the number of abnormal memory scores (NAMS) is one way to operationalise memory impairment, which we hypothesised would predict progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia.
As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 896 older adults who did not have dementia were administered a psychometric battery including three neuropsychological tests of memory, yielding 10 indices of memory. We calculated the number of memory scores corresponding to z ≤ −1.5 (i.e., NAMS) for each participant. Incident diagnosis of AD dementia was established by consensus of an expert panel after 3 years.
Of the 722 (80.6%) participants who were followed up, 54 (7.5%) developed AD dementia. There was a strong correlation between NAMS and probability of developing AD dementia (r = .91, p = .0003). Each abnormal memory score conferred an additional 9.8% risk of progressing to AD dementia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for NAMS was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) .81–.93, p < .01]. The odds ratio for NAMS was 1.67 (95% CI 1.40–2.01, p < .01) after correcting for age, sex, education, estimated intelligence quotient, subjective memory complaint, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score and apolipoprotein E ϵ4 status.
Aggregation of abnormal memory scores may be a useful way of operationalising objective memory impairment, predicting incident AD dementia and providing prognostic stratification for individuals with MCI.
We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was <0.5%, which suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. Although our protocol was resource intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
A single radiocarbon date derived from the Buhl burial in south-central Idaho has frequently been used as a data point for the interpretation of the Western Stemmed Tradition (WST) chronology and technology because of the stemmed biface found in situ with the human remains. AMS dating of bone collagen in 1991 produced an age of 10,675 ± 95 14C BP, immediately postdating the most widely accepted age range for Clovis. The Buhl burial has been cited as evidence that stemmed point technology may have overlapped with Clovis technology in the Intermountain West. We discuss concerns about the radiocarbon date, arguing that even at face value, the calibrated date has minimal overlap with Clovis at the 95.4% range. Furthermore, the C:N ratio of 3.69 in the analyzed collagen is outside of the typical range for well-preserved samples, indicating a postdepositional change in carbon composition, which may make the date erroneously older or younger than the age of the skeleton. Finally, the potential dietary incorporation of small amounts of anadromous fish may indicate that the burial is younger than traditionally accepted. For these reasons, we argue that the Buhl burial cannot be used as evidence of overlap between WST and Clovis.
Vertebrates may be born highly dependent (altricial) or may rapidly gain independence (precocial). Primates are generally considered somatically precocial. However, all are at least initially helpless, and many primates have a prolonged phase of juvenility. In this chapter, we discuss how selection may influence the relative timing of appearance of morphological features (heterochrony). Newborn primate morphology offers unique insights into the roles of prenatal and postnatal growth processes, primarily because metabolic costs for growth commence a transition from the mother to the infant at this point in time. With this in mind, primates vary remarkably at birth in dental eruption and mineralization status as well as limb skeleton ossification (e.g., wrists and ankles). We also discuss evidence, still relatively scant, that at birth primates vary greatly in the degree to which neural organs (e.g., brains, eyes) have achieved adult size and proportions. In preparation for morphological descriptions to follow, the reader is introduced to the concept of modularity of growth: different parts of the skeleton or even parts of regions have different rates of growth and development.
Skeletal Anatomy of the Newborn Primate was written to broaden our knowledge of non-human primates from a comparative and developmental perspective. This chapter explains that the main focus of our book is on the inherently risky neonatal period. The “neonate,” or newborn, is considered here to be a perinatal primate of up to seven days postnatal age. However, there is no simple way to physically identify primate newborns, not in the same many have defined “infants,” based on dental maturity. This is precisely what makes the neonatal stage so interesting: primates, like most other groups of mammals, vary in how rapidly they attain physical maturity. This introductory chapter discusses terminology and methodological challenges in studying newborns.
Feeding ontogeny in primates has three stages. In utero, nutrition is gained maternally. After birth, primates suckle. We know little about functional variation in these stages. The transition to adult feeding – highlighted by weaning – varies across species. Variation is tied to many socioecological and morphological influences across primates. Primate feeding apparatus ontogeny is affected by many factors. Diet exhibits a complex relationship with the clearest signal marked by rapid dental mineralization and eruption in folivorous strepsirrhines. Mineralization varies across primates. Emergence and eruption of postcanine teeth tends to follow size in both suborders with smaller taxa showing earlier emergence, the exception being rapid eruption in some folivores. Compared to teeth, less is known about the musculoskeletal ontogeny of the feeding apparatus. Most studies compare closely related species and link musculoskeletal robustness to challenging diets. Looking forward, better understanding of primate feeding apparatus growth will require improved samples (a challenge for long-lived species) and emphasis on the evolutionary significance of feeding throughout ontogeny.
In this chapter we introduce concepts in dental development, microanatomy of the tooth germ and mineralizing crowns, and terminology relating to dental morphology. Subsequently, tooth morphology in newborn hominoids (apes and humans) is discussed based on the literature, followed by accounts of the extent of crown mineralization at birth in a newly described sample of tarsiers, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and strepsirrhines (lemurs and lorises). Morphology of crowns is described in all species in which the crown is completely formed at birth. The chapter ends with a brief discussion of the “perinatal” trajectory of dental development in selected primate species based on a comparison of species at different stages (fetal, neonatal, and older infant), including some at similar known ages.