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Electronic health records (EHRs) are a significant contributor to physicians’ low satisfaction, reduced engagement and increased burnout. Yet the majority of evidence around EHR and physician harms is based on self-reported screen time, which may both over- and underreport actual exposure.
The purpose of this study was to examine how objective EHR use correlates with physician well-being and to develop preliminary recommendations for well-being-based EHR interventions.
Prior to the onset of COVID-19, psychiatry residents and attending physicians working in an out-patient clinic at an academic medical centre provided consent for access to EHR-usage logs and completed a well-being assessment made up of three scales: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Urecht Work Engagement Scale and the Professional Quality of Life Measure. Survey responses and objective EHR data were analysed with descriptive statistics.
Responses were obtained from 20 psychiatry residents (total eligible residents n = 27; 74% participation) and 16 clinical faculty members (total eligible faculty n = 24; 67% participation) with an overall response rate of 71% (total eligible residents and faculty n = 51 and total residents and faculty who completed survey n = 36). Moderate correlations for multiple well-being domains emerged in analysis for all participants, especially around the time spent per note and patient visits closed the same day.
EHR-usage logs represent an objective tool in the evaluation and enhancement of physician well-being. Results from our pilot study suggest that metrics for note writing efficiency and closing patient visits the same day are associated with physician well-being. These metrics will be important to study in ongoing efforts involving well-being-based EHR interventions.
The inaugural data from the first systematic program of sea-ice observations in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, in 2018 coincided with the first winter in living memory when the Sound was not choked with ice. The following winter of 2018–19 was even warmer and characterized by even less ice. Here we discuss the mass balance of landfast ice near Kotzebue (Qikiqtaġruk) during these two anomalously warm winters. We use in situ observations and a 1-D thermodynamic model to address three research questions developed in partnership with an Indigenous Advisory Council. In doing so, we improve our understanding of connections between landfast ice mass balance, marine mammals and subsistence hunting. Specifically, we show: (i) ice growth stopped unusually early due to strong vertical ocean heat flux, which also likely contributed to early start to bearded seal hunting; (ii) unusually thin ice contributed to widespread surface flooding. The associated snow ice formation partly offset the reduced ice growth, but the flooding likely had a negative impact on ringed seal habitat; (iii) sea ice near Kotzebue during the winters of 2017–18 and 2018–19 was likely the thinnest since at least 1945, driven by a combination of warm air temperatures and a persistent ocean heat flux.
Since 2015, the Canadian Senate has undergone a series of reforms designed to make it more independent, ideologically diverse, and active in the legislative process. We use loyalty scores and vote scaling algorithms to situate the voting behaviour of senators, focusing primarily on the 41st and 42nd Parliaments (2011–2019), the period just before and after the changes, respectively. We find that the reforms have led to a loosening of party discipline across all parties and caucuses but that independent senators appointed under the reformed process are the most likely supporters of the government's agenda. We also find that the Senate has become more willing to use its formal powers.
Dissolved and particulate sodium, magnesium and calcium are analyzed in ice cores to determine past changes in sea ice extent, terrestrial dust variability and atmospheric aerosol transport efficiency. They are also used to date ice cores if annual layers are visible. Multiple methods have been developed to analyze these important compounds in ice cores. Continuous flow analysis (CFA) is implemented with instruments that sample the meltstream continuously. In this study, CFA with ICP-MS (inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry) and fast ion chromatography (FIC) methods are compared for analysis of sodium and magnesium. ICP-MS, FIC and fluorescence methods are compared for analysis of calcium. Respective analysis of a 10 m section of the Antarctic WACSWAIN Skytrain Ice Rise ice core shows that all of the methods result in similar levels of the compounds. The ICP-MS method is the most suitable for analysis of the Skytrain ice core due to its superior precision (relative standard deviation: 1.6% for Na, 1.3% for Mg and 1.2% for Ca) and sampling frequency compared to the FIC method. The fluorescence detection method may be preferred for calcium analysis due to its higher depth resolution (1.4 cm) relative to the ICP-MS and FIC methods (~4 cm).
The objectives of this study were to develop and refine EMPOWER (Enhancing and Mobilizing the POtential for Wellness and Resilience), a brief manualized cognitive-behavioral, acceptance-based intervention for surrogate decision-makers of critically ill patients and to evaluate its preliminary feasibility, acceptability, and promise in improving surrogates’ mental health and patient outcomes.
Part 1 involved obtaining qualitative stakeholder feedback from 5 bereaved surrogates and 10 critical care and mental health clinicians. Stakeholders were provided with the manual and prompted for feedback on its content, format, and language. Feedback was organized and incorporated into the manual, which was then re-circulated until consensus. In Part 2, surrogates of critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) reporting moderate anxiety or close attachment were enrolled in an open trial of EMPOWER. Surrogates completed six, 15–20 min modules, totaling 1.5–2 h. Surrogates were administered measures of peritraumatic distress, experiential avoidance, prolonged grief, distress tolerance, anxiety, and depression at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 1-month and 3-month follow-up assessments.
Part 1 resulted in changes to the EMPOWER manual, including reducing jargon, improving navigability, making EMPOWER applicable for a range of illness scenarios, rearranging the modules, and adding further instructions and psychoeducation. Part 2 findings suggested that EMPOWER is feasible, with 100% of participants completing all modules. The acceptability of EMPOWER appeared strong, with high ratings of effectiveness and helpfulness (M = 8/10). Results showed immediate post-intervention improvements in anxiety (d = −0.41), peritraumatic distress (d = −0.24), and experiential avoidance (d = −0.23). At the 3-month follow-up assessments, surrogates exhibited improvements in prolonged grief symptoms (d = −0.94), depression (d = −0.23), anxiety (d = −0.29), and experiential avoidance (d = −0.30).
Significance of results
Preliminary data suggest that EMPOWER is feasible, acceptable, and associated with notable improvements in psychological symptoms among surrogates. Future research should examine EMPOWER with a larger sample in a randomized controlled trial.
Microstructures, including crystallographic fabric, within the margin of streaming ice can exert strong control on flow dynamics. To characterize a natural setting, we retrieved three cores, two of which reached bed, from the flank of Jarvis Glacier, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska. The core sites lie ~1 km downstream of the source, with abundant water present in the extracted cores and at the base of the glacier. All cores exhibit dipping layers, a combination of debris bands and bubble-free domains. Grain sizes coarsen on average approaching the lateral margin. Crystallographic orientations are more clustered and with c-axes closer to horizontal nearer the lateral margin. The measured fabric is sufficiently weak to induce little mechanical anisotropy, but the data suggest that despite the challenging conditions of warm ice, abundant water and a short flow distance, many aspects of the microstructure, including measurable crystallographic fabric, evolved in systematic ways.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
Alberta is a Canadian province with a high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this ecological study, we examined group differences in health care utilization among persons with MS (pwMS) living within different regions of the province.
pwMS were identified from provincial administrative databases spanning 2002–2011. Utilization of health care services was determined for a 2-year period (April 2010–March 2012). Residential postal codes placed patients into their provincial health care zones. As data were provided to the investigators in an aggregated form, tests of statistical significance and confounding were not performed.
In total, 11,721 pwMS were identified. During the 2-year observation period, 96.2% of pwMS accessed a family physician and 57.1% accessed a neurologist. Nearly all (99.0%) pwMS who received neurologist care in Calgary visited an MS clinic, in contrast to Edmonton where a larger proportion (34.8%) received solely community neurologist care. More pwMS living in Edmonton accessed the ED (41.1%) compared to Calgary (35.7%), and the rate of visits per pwMS was higher in Edmonton (1.07/pwMS) than in Calgary (0.81/pwMS). The frequency of inpatient admissions was similar.
Over 2 years, most pwMS accessed primary care and over half saw a neurologist. Despite a similar frequency of inpatient admissions, the frequency of ED visits by pwMS was higher in Edmonton compared to Calgary, where more patients received MS clinic care. Although this exploratory study is subject to several limitations, our findings suggest that specialized MS clinics may reduce costly ED visits.
To understand the long-term climate and glaciological evolution of the ice sheet in the region bordering the Weddell Sea, the British Antarctic Survey has undertaken a series of successful ice core projects drilling to bedrock on Berkner Island, James Ross Island and the Fletcher Promontory. A new project, WACSWAIN, seeks to increase this knowledge by further drilling to bedrock on two further ice rises in this region. In a single-season project, an ice core was recovered to bedrock at 651 m on Skytrain Ice Rise using an ice core drill in a fluid-filled borehole. In a second season, a rapid access drill was used to recover ice chips to 323 m on Sherman Island in a dry borehole, though failing to reach the bedrock which was at an estimated depth of 428 m.
We use three-dimensional (3-D) fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations to study the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in a simulation of decaying turbulence created by anisotropic counter-propagating low-frequency Alfvén waves consistent with critical-balance theory. We observe the formation of small-scale current-density structures such as current filaments and current sheets as well as the formation of magnetic flux ropes as part of the turbulent cascade. The large magnetic structures present in the simulation domain retain the initial anisotropy while the small-scale structures produced by the turbulent cascade are less anisotropic. To quantify the occurrence of reconnection in our simulation domain, we develop a new set of indicators based on intensity thresholds to identify reconnection events in which both ions and electrons are heated and accelerated in 3-D particle-in-cell simulations. According to the application of these indicators, we identify the occurrence of reconnection events in the simulation domain and analyse one of these events in detail. The event is related to the reconnection of two flux ropes, and the associated ion and electron exhausts exhibit a complex 3-D structure. We study the profiles of plasma and magnetic-field fluctuations recorded along artificial-spacecraft trajectories passing near and through the reconnection region. Our results suggest the presence of particle heating and acceleration related to small-scale reconnection events within magnetic flux ropes produced by the anisotropic Alfvénic turbulent cascade in the solar wind. These events are related to current structures of the order of a few ion inertial lengths in size.
African lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees] is an invasive weed that is threatening biodiversity around the world and will continue to do so unless its efficient management is achieved. Consequently, laboratory and field-based experiments were performed to analyze several measures of germination to determine the effect of drought stress, radiant heat stress, and burial depth and duration (longevity) on E. curvula seeds. This study investigated seeds from four spatially varied populations across Australia: Maffra and Shepparton, VIC; Tenterfield, NSW; and Midvale, WA. Results showed that increasing drought stress reduced and slowed germination for all populations. Maffra (24% vs. 83%) and Shepparton (41% vs. 74%) were reduced at the osmotic potential of ≤−0.4 MPa, while Tenterfield (35% vs. 98.6%) and Midvale (32% vs. 91%) were reduced at ≤−0.6 MPa, compared with the mean of all other osmotic potentials. Radiant heat at 100 C significantly reduced and slowed germination compared with 40 C for Tenterfield (62% vs. 100%), Shepparton (15% vs. 89%), and Midvale (41% vs. 100%), while Maffra (75% vs. 86%) had consistent germination. For the effect of burial depth and duration (longevity), there was no significant difference across the 14-mo period; however, the 0-cm burial depth had a significantly lower final germination percentage compared with depths of 3, 5, and 10 cm (24% vs. 55%). Although each trial was conducted independently, the results can be used to help identify efficient control measures to reduce infesting populations. Recommended measures include using soil moisture monitoring to detect which conditions will promote germination, as germination is encouraged when the osmotic potential is >−0.6 MPa; exposing seeds to radiant heat (>100 C) using methods such as prescribed burning; and limiting soil disturbance over time to reduce seed establishment.
SEP-363856 is a novel psychotropic agent without dopamine D2 receptor occupancy. Although its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, preclinical data suggest that agonism at trace amine receptor 1 (TAAR1) and the serotonin 5-H1A receptor contributes to its efficacy. In a double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study, SEP−363856 demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of an exacerbation of schizophrenia (Koblan et al, NEJM 2020; 82:1497–1506). We present results of a 6-month extension study whose aim was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of longer-term treatment with SEP−363856.
Patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia who completed a 4-week, DB, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose (50 or 75 mg) study of SEP−363856 were given the option to enroll in an extension study in which they were treated, open-label (OL), with flexible doses (25/50/75 mg/d) of SEP−363856 for 26-weeks. The primary outcomes were safety measures; effectiveness outcomes were secondary and included the PANSS total score and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) total score.
A total of 193 patients completed the 4-week DB study, and 156 (80.8%) were dosed in the OL extension study and received at least one dose of SEP−363856 (safety population). Study completer rate was 66.9%; reasons for discontinuation consisted of adverse event (11.5%), withdrawal of consent (10.2%), lack of efficacy (5.1%), and other (6.4%). 15 patients experienced an SAE: schizophrenia (n=11); acute psychosis (N=1); uterine hemorrhage and suicidal ideation (N=1 each); there were no deaths in the study. Individual AEs with an incidence =2% were schizophrenia (12.2%), headache (11.5%), insomnia (8.3%), anxiety (5.1%), somnolence (4.5%), nasopharyngitis (4.5%), nausea (3.8%), irritability (3.2%), influenza (3.2%), weight decreased (3.2%), and prolactin increased (2.6%). On movement scales, minimal mean change from OL-baseline to Week 26 occurred on the Barnes total score (−0.1), AIMS total score (0.0) and SAS score (−0.1). Mean month 6 change from DB baseline in weight was −0.3 kg. No clinically meaningful median changes were observed at week 26 in metabolic laboratory parameters (total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c) or in prolactin levels. During 6 months of OL treatment, one patient had an increase in QTcF =60 msec; no patients had a QTcF interval =480 msec. Treatment with SEP−363856 was associated with significant improvement from OL baseline to week 26 in PANSS total score (−22.6) and BNSS total score (−11.3).
Treatment with SEP−363856 was associated with continued improvement from open-label baseline in the PANSS total (−22.6) and BNSS total (−11.3) scores. The most frequently reported adverse events (= 5%) were schizophrenia, headache, insomnia and anxiety. SEP−363856 had minimal effects on weight, lipids, glycemic indices, prolactin, and was associated with minimal risk of extrapyramidal symptom.
Current treatments for schizophrenia are often associated with increased rates of metabolic syndrome (MetSy). MetSy is defined as meeting 3 of the following 5 criteria: waist circumference >40in (men) or >35in (women), triglycerides =150mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) <40mg/dL (men) or <50mg/dL (women), systolic blood pressure (BP) =130mmHg or diastolic BP =85mmHg, fasting glucose =100mg/dL. Patients with MetSy have an elevated risk of developing type II diabetes and increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Lumateperone (lumateperone tosylate, ITI−007), a mechanistically novel antipsychotic that simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmission, is FDA approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. This distinct pharmacological profile has been associated with favorable tolerability and a low risk of adverse metabolic effects in clinical trials. This post hoc analysis of 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia compared rates of MetSy with lumateperone and risperidone. Data from an open-label long-term trial of lumateperone were also evaluated.
The incidence and shift in MetSy were analyzed in data pooled from 2 short-term (4 or 6 week) placebo- and active-controlled (risperidone 4mg) studies of lumateperone 42mg (Studies 005 and 302). The pooled lumateperone data were compared with data for risperidone. Data from an open-label 1-year trial (Study 303) evaluated MetSy in patients with stable schizophrenia switched from prior antipsychotic (PA) treatment to lumateperone 42mg.
In the acute studies (n=256 lumateperone 42mg, n=255 risperidone 4mg), rates of MetSy were similar between groups at baseline (16% lumateperone, 19% risperidone). At the end of treatment (EOT), MetSy was less common with lumateperone than with risperidone (13% vs 25%). More lumateperone patients (46%) compared with risperidone (25%) patients improved from having MetSy at baseline to no longer meeting MetSy criteria at EOT. Conversely, more patients on risperidone than on lumateperone developed MetSy during treatment (13% vs 5%). Differences in MetSy conversion rates were driven by changes in triglycerides and glucose. In the long-term study (n=602 lumateperone 42mg), 33% of patients had MetSy at PA baseline. Thirty-six percent of patients (36%) with MetSy at PA baseline improved to no longer meeting criteria at EOT. Fewer than half that percentage shifted from not meeting MetSy criteria to having MetSy (15%).
In this post hoc analysis, lumateperone 42mg patients had reduced rates of MetSy compared with risperidone patients. In the long-term study, patients with MetSy on PA switched to lumateperone 42mg had a reduction in the risk of MetSy. These results suggest that lumateperone 42mg is a promising new treatment for schizophrenia with a favorable metabolic profile.
Few studies have examined treatment response in adolescents with schizophrenia who are treatment-naive; and there is no placebo-controlled study that we are aware of in first episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of lurasidone in antipsychotic-naive adolescents with schizophrenia.
Patients aged 13–17 years with schizophrenia, and a PANSS total score ≥70 and <120, were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind (DB) treatment with lurasidone (40 or 80 mg/day) or placebo. Six-week completers were eligible to enroll in a 2-year open-label extension phase receiving lurasidone flexibly dosed from 20–80 mg/day. In a post-hoc analysis, efficacy was evaluated for 2 patient groups based on treatment status prior to entering the initial 6-week DB study (treatment naïve [TN] vs. treated previously [TP]). Treatment-naïve was defined as never having received antipsychotic treatment. Efficacy measures included the PANSS total score and the Clinical Global Impression, Severity (CGI-S) score. Level of functioning was assessed using the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), with a score of 70 representing normative levels of functioning.
A total of 50 TN and 221 TP patients completed the 6-week DB study and entered the extension study; and 30 (60.0%) TN and 126 (57.0%) TP patients completed 104 weeks. During the initial 6 weeks of DB treatment, mean change in PANSS total score at endpoint was greater for lurasidone vs. placebo in both the TN group (−25.0 vs. −14.4; P<0.02; effect size, 0.75), and in the TP group (−17.3 vs. −10.0; P<0.001; effect size, 0.45). During OL extension phase treatment with lurasidone, mean change from DB baseline in the PANSS total score for TN and TP patients, at week 52 was −32.6 (n=38) and −28.1 (n=151), respectively; and at week 104 was −33.6 (n=30) and −29.2 (n=126), respectively. Mean change from DB baseline in CGI-S score at both weeks 52 and 104 was −1.8 for TN patients and −1.5 for TP patients. At DB baseline mean CGAS scores indicated significant functional impairment in both the TN and TP patients (CGAS=48 and 43, respectively). During OL treatment with lurasidone, mean change (from DB baseline) in the CGAS score at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively, was +22.0 and +22.9 in TN patients, and +21.1 and +22.9 in TP patients. During OL treatment with lurasidone, mean observed change from DB baseline in the weight (in kg,) at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively, was +4.2 and +4.8 in TN patients, and +4.0 and +5.0 in TP patients. These weight increases are consistent with expected weight gains in adolescents during a 2-year period (based on CDC growth charts).
In this post-hoc analysis of a 2-year study, adolescents with schizophrenia who had received no previous antipsychotic therapy showed greater improvement compared to previously treated patients during both short- and long-term treatment with lurasidone.
Adolescents who hold an entity theory of personality – the belief that people cannot change – are more likely to report internalizing symptoms during the socially stressful transition to high school. It has been puzzling, however, why a cognitive belief about the potential for change predicts symptoms of an affective disorder. The present research integrated three models – implicit theories, hopelessness theories of depression, and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat – to shed light on this issue. Study 1 replicated the link between an entity theory and internalizing symptoms by synthesizing multiple datasets (N = 6,910). Study 2 examined potential mechanisms underlying this link using 8-month longitudinal data and 10-day diary reports during the stressful first year of high school (N = 533, 3,199 daily reports). The results showed that an entity theory of personality predicted increases in internalizing symptoms through tendencies to make fixed trait causal attributions about the self and maladaptive (i.e., “threat”) stress appraisals. The findings support an integrative model whereby situation-general beliefs accumulate negative consequences for psychopathology via situation-specific attributions and appraisals.
This paper describes a computational investigation of multimode instability growth and multimaterial mixing induced by multiple shock waves in a high-energy-density (HED) environment, where pressures exceed 1 Mbar. The simulations are based on a series of experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and designed as an HED analogue of non-HED shock-tube studies of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability and turbulent mixing. A three-dimensional computational modelling framework is presented. It treats many complications absent from canonical non-HED shock-tube flows, including distinct ion and free-electron internal energies, non-ideal equations of state, radiation transport and plasma-state mass diffusivities, viscosities and thermal conductivities. The simulations are tuned to the available NIF data, and traditional statistical quantities of turbulence are analysed. Integrated measures of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy both increase by over an order of magnitude due to reshock. Large contributions to enstrophy production during reshock are seen from both the baroclinic source and enstrophy–dilatation terms, highlighting the significance of fluid compressibility in the HED regime. Dimensional analysis reveals that Reynolds numbers and diffusive Péclet numbers in the HED flow are similar to those in a canonical non-HED analogue, but conductive Péclet numbers are much smaller in the HED flow due to efficient thermal conduction by free electrons. It is shown that the mechanism of electron thermal conduction significantly softens local spanwise gradients of both temperature and density, which causes a minor but non-negligible decrease in enstrophy production and small-scale mixing relative to a flow without this mechanism.
Although cardiac catheterisation (cath) is the diagnostic test for pulmonary hypertension, it is an invasive procedure. Echocardiography (echo) is commonly used for the non-invasive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension but maybe limited by lack of adequate signals. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on biomarkers as a potential diagnostic tool. No prior paediatric studies have simultaneously compared N-terminal pro-B-type-natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) with cath/echo as a potential diagnostic tool. The aim of this study was to determine if NTproBNP was a reliable diagnostic tool for pulmonary hypertension in this population.
Patients were divided into Study (echo evidence/established diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension undergoing cath) and Control (cath for small atrial septal defect/patent ductus arteriosus and endomyocardial biopsy post cardiac transplant) groups. NTproBNP, cath/echo data were obtained.
Thirty-one patients met inclusion criteria (10 Study, 21 Control). Median NTproBNP was significantly higher in the Study group. Echo parameters including transannular plane systolic excursion z scores, pulmonary artery acceleration time and right ventricular fractional area change were lower in the Study group and correlated negatively with NTproBNP. Receiver operation characteristic curve analysis demonstrated NTproBNP > 389 pg/ml was 87% specific for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension with the addition of pulmonary artery acceleration time improving the specificity.
NTproBNP may be a valuable adjunctive diagnostic tool for pulmonary hypertension in the paediatric population. Echo measures of transannular plane systolic excursion z score, pulmonary artery acceleration time and right ventricular fractional area change had negative correlations with NTproBNP. The utility of NTproBNP as a screening tool for pulmonary hypertension requires validation in a population with unknown pulmonary hypertension status.