To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery through Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery study is a prospective, open-label, single-centre, dose-escalation phase 1 trial assessing the safety/feasibility of delivering mesenchymal stromal cells to neonates/infants during cardiac surgery. Outcomes will be compared with historical data from a similar population. We aim to define an optimal control group for use in the Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery through Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery trial.
Consecutive patients who underwent a two-ventricle repair without aortic arch reconstruction within the first 6 months of life between 2015 and 2020 were studied using the same inclusion/exclusion criteria as the Phase 1 Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery through Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery trial (n = 169). Patients were allocated into one of three diagnostic groups: ventricular septal defect type, Tetralogy of Fallot type, and transposition of the great arteries type. To determine era effect, patients were analysed in two groups: Group A (2015–2017) and B (2018–2020). In addition to biological markers, three post-operative scoring methods (inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores and the Pediatric Risk of Mortality-III) were assessed.
All values for three scoring systems were consistent with complexity of cardiac anomalies. Max inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores demonstrated significant differences between all diagnosis groups, confirming high sensitivity. Despite no differences in surgical factors between era groups, we observed lower inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores in group B, consistent with improved post-operative course in recent years at our centre.
Our studies confirm max inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores as important quantitative measures after neonatal/infant cardiac surgery. Clinical outcomes should be compared within diagnostic groupings. The optimal control group should include only patients from a recent era. This initial study will help to determine the sample size of future efficacy/effectiveness studies.
Heart attacks (HAs) present clinically with varying symptoms, which are not always described by patients as chest pain (CP) or chest discomfort (CD). Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs) select the CP/CD dispatch protocol for non-chest pain HA symptoms or classic HA complaint of CP/CD. Nevertheless, it is still unknown how often callers report HA symptoms other than CP/CD.
The objective of this study was to characterize the caller’s descriptions of the primary HA symptoms, descriptions of the other HA symptoms, and the use of a case entry (CE) question clarifier.
A retrospective descriptive study analyzed randomly selected EMD audios (where CD/CD protocol was used) from five accredited emergency communication centers in the United States. Several Quality Performance Review (QPR) experts reviewed the audios and recorded callers’ initial problem descriptions, the use of and responses to the CE question clarifier, including the EMD-assigned final determinant code.
A total of 1,261 audios were reviewed. The clarifier was used only 8.5% of the time. The CP/CD symptoms were mentioned alone or with other problems 87.0% of the time. Overall, CP symptom was mentioned alone 70.8%, HA alone 4.0%, and CD symptom alone 1.4% of the time.
9-1-1 callers report potential HA cases using a variety of terms and descriptions—most commonly CP. Other less-common symptoms associated with a HA may be mentioned. Therefore, EMDs must be well-trained to be prepared to probe the caller with a clarifying query to elicit more specific information when “having a heart attack” is the only complaint initially mentioned.
This chapter presents a synopsis of some of the latest developments in our understanding of pyroconvective interactions, their links to fire geometrym and their role in driving dynamic fire behavior and extreme wildfire development. We highlight the need to augment traditional quasi-steady wildfire modeling paradigms with more sophisticated approaches that combine highly-instrumented, larger-scale experimental studies with state-of-the-art computational modeling. We identify the need to take maximum advantage of technical advances in remote sensing technology to provide new ways of observing extreme fire events.
The performance benefits of deploying tidal turbines in close side-by-side proximity to exploit constructive interference effects are demonstrated experimentally using two 1.2 m diameter turbines. The turbines are arrayed side-by-side at 1/4 diameter tip-to-tip spacing, and their performance compared with that of a single rotor. Tests were completed in the 25 m diameter, 2 m deep wave and current FloWave Ocean Energy Research facility. A detailed assessment of inflow conditions at different control points is used to understand the impact that rotors, designed for high blockage conditions, have on the approach flow. After accounting for global blockage, a 10.8 % uplift in the twin-turbine-averaged power coefficient, relative to that for a single turbine, is found for the turbine design speed, at the expense of a 5.2 % increase in thrust coefficient and 3.1 % increase in tip-speed-ratio. Flowfield mapping demonstrated flow effects at array and device scale including array bypass flows and jetting between turbines. Azimuthal variation of blade root flapwise and edgewise bending moments show that the turbines interact in a beneficial manner, with additional and sustained loading peaks as the blades pass in close proximity to the neighbouring rotor. Peak performance for the twin turbines occurred at a higher tip-speed-ratio than for the single turbine, which is consistent with the twin turbines exerting a higher thrust on the flow to achieve maximum power. The twin turbine performance variation with tip-speed-ratio is found to be more gradual than for the single turbine. Using differential rotor speed control we observe that array performance is robust to small differences in neighbouring rotor operating point. Through these experiments we demonstrate that there is a substantial, achievable performance benefit from closely arraying turbines for side-by-side operation and designing them for constructive interference.
Consider the extended hull of a weak model set together with its natural shift action. Equip the extended hull with the Mirsky measure, which is a certain natural pattern frequency measure. It is known that the extended hull is a measure-theoretic factor of some group rotation, which is called the underlying torus. Among other results, in the article Periods and factors of weak model sets, we showed that the extended hull is isomorphic to a factor group of the torus, where certain periods of the window of the weak model set have been factored out. This was proved for weak model sets having a compact window. In this note, we argue that the same results hold for arbitrary measurable and relatively compact windows. Our arguments crucially rely on Moody’s work on uniform distribution in model sets. We also discuss implications for the diffraction of such weak model sets and discuss a new class of examples which are generic for the Mirsky measure.
Prisons are susceptible to outbreaks. Control measures focusing on isolation and cohorting negatively affect wellbeing. We present an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large male prison in Wales, UK, October 2020 to April 2021, and discuss control measures.
We gathered case-information, including demographics, staff-residence postcode, resident cell number, work areas/dates, test results, staff interview dates/notes and resident prison-transfer dates. Epidemiological curves were mapped by prison location. Control measures included isolation (exclusion from work or cell-isolation), cohorting (new admissions and work-area groups), asymptomatic testing (case-finding), removal of communal dining and movement restrictions. Facemask use and enhanced hygiene were already in place. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and interviews determined the genetic relationship between cases plausibility of transmission.
Of 453 cases, 53% (n = 242) were staff, most aged 25–34 years (11.5% females, 27.15% males) and symptomatic (64%). Crude attack-rate was higher in staff (29%, 95% CI 26–64%) than in residents (12%, 95% CI 9–15%).
Whole-genome sequencing can help differentiate multiple introductions from person-to-person transmission in prisons. It should be introduced alongside asymptomatic testing as soon as possible to control prison outbreaks. Timely epidemiological investigation, including data visualisation, allowed dynamic risk assessment and proportionate control measures, minimising the reduction in resident welfare.
In March 2020, New York City became the epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. Because healthcare facilities were overwhelmed with patients, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was transformed into the nation’s largest alternate care site: Javits New York Medical Station (hereafter termed Javits). Protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) during a global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) in a nontraditional healthcare setting posed unique challenges. We describe components of the HCW safety program implemented at Javits.
Javits, a large convention center transformed into a field hospital, with clinical staff from the US Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the US Department of Defense.
Key strategies to ensure HCW safety included ensuring 1-way flow of traffic on and off the patient floor, developing a matrix detailing PPE required for each work activity and location, PPE extended use and reuse protocols, personnel training, and monitoring adherence to PPE donning/doffing protocols when entering or exiting the patient floor. Javits staff who reported COVID-19 symptoms were immediately isolated, monitored, and offered a severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test.
A well-designed and implemented HCW safety plan can minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for HCWs. The lessons learned from operating the nation’s largest COVID-19 alternate care site can be adapted to other environments during public health emergencies.
Smell dysfunction is among the earliest and most salient non-motor signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD), occurring in an estimated 90% of so-called sporadic cases years before the onset of the classic motor symptoms. Until olfaction is tested formally, the vast majority of PD patients are unaware of their loss, which is usually less than total. The smell problem is rarely identified by neurologists, reflecting, in part, their failure to enquire about smell function let alone testing the olfactory nerve formally. The Quality Standards Committee of the American Academy of Neurology has designated olfactory dysfunction as one of the key diagnostic criteria for PD  and the Movement Disorder Society has recommended olfactory testing in the diagnosis of PD  and in the identification of prodromal PD .
Welfare states allocate and redistribute resources across different groups. For the social legitimacy of welfare states, public support of redistributive processes and outcomes is crucial. An important aspect in this context is the deservingness or non-deservingness of benefit recipients from the perspective of those who both financially contribute to the system and potentially benefit from it. We invited a random sample of the German labour force to participate in an online-survey. Using a factorial survey experiment, we described fictitious unemployed persons with different attributes and asked survey participants on the just maximum benefit duration for each particular case. Judgements regarding just benefit durations vary along the criteria of reciprocity, control, attitude and need: Respondents grant longer unemployment benefits to older jobseekers, as well as to jobseekers who became involuntarily unemployed, had stable employment careers, have to care for the elderly or are sole earners in the household.
The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites.
During October–December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates.
We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated.
The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.
We report on the generation and delivery of 10.2 PW peak power laser pulses, using the High Power Laser System at the Extreme Laser Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics facility. In this work we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the compression and propagation of full energy, full aperture, laser pulses that reach a power level of more than 10 PW.
Social media platforms allow users to share news, ideas, thoughts, and opinions on a global scale. Data processing methods allow researchers to automate the collection and interpretation of social media posts for efficient and valuable disease surveillance. Data derived from social media and internet search trends have been used successfully for monitoring and forecasting disease outbreaks such as Zika, Dengue, MERS, and Ebola viruses. More recently, data derived from social media have been used to monitor and model disease incidence during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We discuss the use of social media for disease surveillance.
Masturbation is a common sexual practice in men, and saliva is often used as a lubricant during masturbation by men who have sex with men. However, the role of saliva use during masturbation in the transmission of chlamydia is still unclear. We developed population-level, susceptible-infected-susceptible compartmental models to explore the role of saliva use during masturbation on the transmission of chlamydia at multiple anatomical sites. In this study, we simulated both solo masturbation and mutual masturbation. Our baseline model did not include masturbation but included transmission routes (anal sex, oral-penile sex, rimming, kissing and sequential sexual practices) we have previously validated (model 1). We added masturbation to model 1 to develop the second model (model 2). We calibrated the model to five clinical datasets separately to assess the effects of masturbation on the prevalence of site-specific infection. The inclusion of masturbation (model 2) significantly worsened the ability of the models to replicate the prevalence of C. trachomatis. Using model 2 and the five data sets, we estimated that saliva use during masturbation was responsible for between 3.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–6.8] and 6.2% (95% CI 3.8–10.5) of incident chlamydia cases at all sites. Our models suggest that saliva use during masturbation is unlikely to play a major role in chlamydia transmission between men, and even if it does have a role, about one in seven cases of urethral chlamydia might arise from masturbation.
Places the four gospels in the scriptural environment of Israel’s story. Taking each gospel in turn, Hays and Blumhofer show that the scriptures constitute the gospels’ ‘generative milieu’. The stories about Jesus gain their full intelligibility within the context of the textual tradition and the larger scriptural story of God’s dealings with Israel.
Group Name: VHA Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance (CASPAR) Background: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are advised to measure antimicrobial consumption as a metric for audit and feedback. However, most ASPs lack the tools necessary for appropriate risk adjustment and standardized data collection, which are critical for peer-program benchmarking. We created a system that automatically extracts antimicrobial use data and patient-level factors for risk-adjustment and a dashboard to present risk-adjusted benchmarking metrics for ASP within the Veterans’ Health Administration (VHA). Methods: We built a system to extract patient-level data for antimicrobial use, procedures, demographics, and comorbidities for acute inpatient and long-term care units at all VHA hospitals utilizing the VHA’s Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). We built baseline negative binomial regression models to perform risk-adjustments based on patient- and unit-level factors using records dated between October 2016 and September 2018. These models were then leveraged both retrospectively and prospectively to calculate observed-to-expected ratios of antimicrobial use for each hospital and for specific units within each hospital. Data transformation and applications of risk-adjustment models were automatically performed within the CDW database server, followed by monthly scheduled data transfer from the CDW to the Microsoft Power BI server for interactive data visualization. Frontline antimicrobial stewards at 10 VHA hospitals participated in the project as pilot users. Results: Separate baseline risk-adjustment models to predict days of therapy (DOT) for all antibacterial agents were created for acute-care and long-term care units based on 15,941,972 patient days and 3,011,788 DOT between October 2016 and September 2018 at 134 VHA hospitals. Risk adjustment models include month, unit types (eg, intensive care unit [ICU] vs non-ICU for acute care), specialty, age, gender, comorbidities (50 and 30 factors for acute care and long-term care, respectively), and preceding procedures (45 and 24 procedures for acute care and long-term care, respectively). We created additional models for each antimicrobial category based on National Healthcare Safety Network definitions. For each hospital, risk-adjusted benchmarking metrics and a monthly ranking within the VHA system were visualized and presented to end users through the dashboard (an example screenshot in Figure 1). Conclusions: Developing an automated surveillance system for antimicrobial consumption and risk-adjustment benchmarking using an electronic medical record data warehouse is feasible and can potentially provide valuable tools for ASPs, especially at hospitals with no or limited local informatics expertise. Future efforts will evaluate the effectiveness of dashboards in these settings.