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Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a globally important pest of Brassicaceae crops, migrates into all provinces of Canada annually. Life tables were used to determine the mortality levels contributed by the parasitoid complexes associated with diamondback moth in British Columbia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and insular Newfoundland. Overall, diamondback moth populations showed high generational mortality (> 90%) in all provinces, although parasitism levels were generally low. The net reproductive rate of increase in diamondback moth was less than 1.0 (populations declined) in both years in British Columbia and in each of two years in Newfoundland and Ontario, but it was greater than 1.0 in all three years in Prince Edward Island. Lower parasitism levels were found in Prince Edward Island (3.0–6.3%) compared with other provinces (8.4–17.6%, except one year in British Columbia). Diadegma insulare was the main larval parasitoid found; it was present in all provinces. Microplitis plutellae was present in all provinces except British Columbia. Oomyzus sokolowskii was found in British Columbia and Ontario. The parasitoid community documented from sentinel sampling was less diverse than that found through destructive sampling. Hypotheses are provided to explain the presence of major parasitoids. Increasing larval parasitism would have the largest effect on diamondback moth population growth in Canada.
Malka presents convincing evidence in support of the claim that the rabbinic list is not indigenous but borrowed from the Roman legal institution of infamia, which was also attached to certain professions and also deprived persons of their eligibility for testimony. More important, she shows that this structural parallel is bolstered by a deeper conceptual parallel, for underlying both the rabbinic and the Roman disqualification is a wider Greco-Roman discourse on self-control (with Plutarch providing a four-fold list parallel to the tannaitic list in substance).
Persistent pain is common and inadequately treated in cancer patients. Behavioral pain interventions are a recommended part of multimodal pain treatments, but they are underused in clinical care due to barriers such as a lack of the resources needed to deliver them in person and difficulties coordinating their use with clinical care. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based behavioral pain intervention traditionally delivered in person. Delivering this training via the web would increase access to it by addressing barriers that currently limit its use. We conducted a patient pilot study of an 8-week web-based PCST program to determine the acceptability of this approach to patients and the program features needed to meet their needs. Focus groups with healthcare providers identified strategies for coordinating the use of web-based PCST in clinical care.
Participants included 7 adults with bone pain due to multiple myeloma or metastasized breast or prostate cancer and 12 healthcare providers (4 physicians and 8 advanced practice providers) who treat cancer-related bone pain. Patients completed web-based PCST at home and then took part in an in-depth qualitative interview. Providers attended focus groups led by a trained moderator. Qualitative analyses identified themes in the patient and provider data.
Patients reported strongly favorable responses to web-based PCST and described emotional and physical benefits. They offered suggestions for adapting the approach to better fit their needs and to overcome barriers to completion. Focus groups indicated a need to familiarize healthcare providers with PCST and to address concerns about overburdening patients. Providers would recommend the program to patients they felt could benefit. They suggested applying a broad definition of cancer pain and having various types of providers help coordinate program its use with clinical care.
Significance of results:
Web-based PCST was acceptable to patients and providers. Our findings suggest that patients could benefit from this approach, especially if patient and provider barriers are addressed.
The Cambridge Companion to Judaism and Law explores the Jewish conception of law as an essential component of the divine-human relationship from biblical to modern times, as well as resistance to this conceptualization. It also traces the political, social, intellectual, and cultural circumstances that spawned competing Jewish approaches to its own 'divine' law and the 'non-divine' law of others, including that of the modern, secular state of Israel. Part I focuses on the emergence and development of law as an essential element of religious expression in biblical Israel and classical Judaism through the medieval period. Part II considers the ramifications for the law arising from political emancipation and the invention of Judaism as a 'religion' in the modern period. Finally, Part III traces the historical and ideological processes leading to the current configuration of religion and state in modern Israel, analysing specific conflicts between religious law and state law.
A significant proportion of injured workers are not able to return to their original job. Employers have a responsibility as part of their disability management programs to assist this population to find a new vocation. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the résumé-development process in terms of its potential impact on job-search behaviour for injured workers who are unable to return to their previous job. Data were collected from 22 Australian rehabilitation counsellors via questionnaires, sample documents, and telephone interviews. Thematic analysis of the data reveals that the résumé-development process may be useful in promoting effective job-search behaviour in clients. However, for this to occur it is suggested that the résumé-development process must provide relevant knowledge and skills, overcome or reduce clients’ doubts, address disability but focus on ability, provide ongoing emotional and practical support, value individualisation, and increase clients’ motivation. It is speculated that the findings may be explained by the increased sense of self-efficacy that occurs through participation in the résumé-development process.
Behavioural activation by non-specialists appears effective in the treatment of depression. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness of behavioural activation (n = 24) v. treatment as usual (n = 23) in a randomised controlled trial. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) difference in favour of behavioural activation of 0.20 (95% CI 0.01–0.39, P = 0.042), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £5756 per QALY and a 97% probability that behavioural activation is more cost-effective at a threshold value of £20 000. Results are promising for dissemination of behavioural activation but require replication in a larger study.