To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We compared the rates of hospital-onset secondary bacterial infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with rates in patients with influenza and controls, and we investigated reports of increased incidence of Enterococcus infections in patients with COVID-19.
Retrospective cohort study.
An academic quaternary-care hospital in San Francisco, California.
Patients admitted between October 1, 2019, and October 1, 2020, with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR (N = 314) or influenza PCR (N = 82) within 2 weeks of admission were compared with inpatients without positive SARS-CoV-2 or influenza tests during the study period (N = 14,332).
National Healthcare Safety Network definitions were used to identify infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP), bloodstream infections (BSIs), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). A multiple logistic regression model was used to control for likely confounders.
COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of IVAC and PVAP compared to controls, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–13.9) and 10.4 (95 % CI, 2.1–52.1), respectively. COVID-19 patients had higher incidence of BSI due to Enterococcus but not BSI generally, and whole-genome sequencing of Enterococcus isolates demonstrated that nosocomial transmission did not explain the increased rate. Subanalyses of patients admitted to the intensive care unit and patients who required mechanical ventilation revealed similar findings.
COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of IVAC, PVAP, and Enterococcus BSI compared with hospitalized controls, which is not fully explained by factors such as immunosuppressive treatments and duration of mechanical ventilation. The mechanism underlying increased rates of Enterococcus BSI in COVID-19 patients requires further investigation.
Germinal vesicle (GV)-stage horse oocytes with diffuse chromatin are meiotically incompetent and degenerate in culture, whereas horse oocytes having condensed chromatin within the GV are meiotically competent. Degeneration of incompetent oocytes in culture may be related to premature GV breakdown, which could possibly be prevented by inhibition of m-phase protein activity. We examined the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP), butyrolactone and roscovitine on GV-stage horse oocytes. Culture in the presence of 2 mM 6-DMAP for 24 h suppressed meiosis (2% MI or MII compared with 38% for untreated oocytes). The proportion of GV-stage oocytes having condensed chromatin was not different between 6-DMAP culture and directly fixed controls; however, the proportion of oocytes with diffuse chromatin was significantly lower, and more oocytes with diffuse chromatin had atypical chromatin than did controls (p < 0.01). Culture with butyrolactone at 100 mM suppressed meiosis (5% MI + II). Again, this treatment maintained GV-stage oocytes having condensed chromatin, but the proportion of oocytes with diffuse chromatin was significantly reduced compared with directly fixed controls (p < 0.05). Culture with roscovitine at 25 μM was also effective in maintaining GV-stage oocytes having condensed
chromatin; however, culture with 100 μM roscovitine did not suppress meiosis or maintain oocytes in the GV stage. These results indicate that meiosis in GV-stage horse oocytes having condensed chromatin may be suppressed by inhibitors of m-phase protein activity; however, oocytes originally having diffuse
chromatin appear to degenerate in culture even in the presence of these inhibitors.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.