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To examine links between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) categories and diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in this population; it is predicted that there will be a positive association between number of ACEs and ASPD. The effectiveness of high secure hospital admission and treatment in reducing number of risk incidents was also examined. ACEs are known to impact significantly on the development of the personality and future psychiatric risk. Currently, research into links between distinct ACE categories and the diagnosis of ASPD in the high-secure inpatient population is limited.
Data were collected from a sample (n = 221) including all patients in the Mental Health, Personality Disorder and Women's Services at a high-secure hospital. Records were examined for evidence of abuse/neglect during childhood, and a number of markers of household dysfunction. The statistical relationship between each ACE category and subsequent diagnosis of ASPD was examined through paired t-tests. Frequency of incident reports (IR1s) involving violence was compared in the first, third and fifth years post-admission.
Significant associations with adult diagnosis of ASPD were seen in categories of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, divorced/separated parents, Looked After Child (LAC) status and parental substance misuse, and total number of ACE categories present overall. Significant reductions in frequency of IR1s were seen in all services between first- and fifth- year post admission.
A significant association between ACEs in specific domains and ASPD in adulthood was found. The importance of detailed exploration of childhood circumstances in this group is highlighted, as well as the need for further investigation of the psychological and social mechanisms underlying.
A recently updated Cochrane review supports the efficacy of psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD).
To evaluate the effects of standalone and add-on psychotherapeutic treatments more concisely.
We applied the same methods as the 2020 Cochrane review, but focused on adult samples and comparisons of active treatments and unspecific control conditions. Standalone treatments (i.e. necessarily including individual psychotherapy as either the sole or one of several treatment components) and add-on interventions (i.e. complementing any ongoing individual BPD treatment) were analysed separately. Primary outcomes were BPD severity, self-harm, suicide-related outcomes and psychosocial functioning. Secondary outcomes were remaining BPD diagnostic criteria, depression and attrition.
Thirty-one randomised controlled trials totalling 1870 participants were identified. Among standalone treatments, statistically significant effects of low overall certainty were observed for dialectical behaviour therapy (self-harm: standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.54, P = 0.006; psychosocial functioning: SMD −0.51, P = 0.01) and mentalisation-based treatment (self-harm: risk ratio 0.51, P < 0.0007; suicide-related outcomes: risk ratio 0.10, P < 0.0001). For adjunctive interventions, moderate-quality evidence of beneficial effects was observed for DBT skills training (BPD severity: SMD −0.66, P = 0.002; psychosocial functioning: SMD −0.45, P = 0.002), and statistically significant low-certainty evidence was observed for the emotion regulation group (BPD severity: mean difference −8.49, P < 0.00001), manual-assisted cognitive therapy (self-harm: mean difference −3.03, P = 0.03; suicide-related outcomes: SMD −0.96, P = 0.005) and the systems training for emotional predictability and problem-solving (BPD severity: SMD −0.48, P = 0.002).
There is reasonable evidence to conclude that psychotherapeutic interventions are helpful for individuals with BPD. Replication studies are needed to enhance the certainty of findings.
Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy and low-temperature ultrasonic attenuation measurements are reported for filled and unfilled skutterudites and for Ge-clathrates. These data reveal that an unusual elastic behavior complements the thermal properties of the filled skutterudites and indicate the presence of low-energy vibrational modes. The attenuation at low-temperatures in the single-crystalline Ge-clathrate is glasslike and can be described by the same phenomenological Tunneling Model that has been developed to describe the low-temperature properties of amorphous solids.
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