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Knowledge about property rights is a commons that facilitates market exchange and economic coordination. The governance of that shared knowledge resource—the various formal and informal rules that maintain ledgers of property rights—ranges from community norms to formal state registries. In this chapter we make three contributions. First, we use the lens of knowledge commons theory to argue that knowledge about property rights is a shared resource. Second, we explore how that knowledge commons is governed—particularly relating to “rules in use”—might shift due to technological advances in distributed ledgers. Third, we argue that as blockchain augments and complements existing governance structures, it creates a more robust political economy.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
To describe pathogen distribution and rates for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) from different acute-care locations during 2011–2017 to inform prevention efforts.
CLABSI data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) were analyzed. Percentages and pooled mean incidence density rates were calculated for a variety of pathogens and stratified by acute-care location groups (adult intensive care units [ICUs], pediatric ICUs [PICUs], adult wards, pediatric wards, and oncology wards).
From 2011 to 2017, 136,264 CLABSIs were reported to the NHSN by adult and pediatric acute-care locations; adult ICUs and wards reported the most CLABSIs: 59,461 (44%) and 40,763 (30%), respectively. In 2017, the most common pathogens were Candida spp/yeast in adult ICUs (27%) and Enterobacteriaceae in adult wards, pediatric wards, oncology wards, and PICUs (23%–31%). Most pathogen-specific CLABSI rates decreased over time, excepting Candida spp/yeast in adult ICUs and Enterobacteriaceae in oncology wards, which increased, and Staphylococcus aureus rates in pediatric locations, which did not change.
The pathogens associated with CLABSIs differ across acute-care location groups. Learning how pathogen-targeted prevention efforts could augment current prevention strategies, such as strategies aimed at preventing Candida spp/yeast and Enterobacteriaceae CLABSIs, might further reduce national rates.
Heart failure increases the likelihood of an individual experiencing co-morbid anxiety and depression, which can affect their physical as well as mental health. There is a need to develop non-pharmacological interventions for the psychological consequences of heart failure. Evidence shows that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be helpful, but there is less clarity about CBT’s effectiveness for people with heart failure who have complex multi-morbid difficulties.
This paper presents a case report of a man with heart failure. He was part of a research trial for cardiac resynchronisation therapy with defibrillation (CRT-D), after other physical procedures had been unsuccessful, and was experiencing severe anxiety and moderately severe depression. The intervention used was based on transdiagnostic CBT, provided at home over six sessions. Self-report measures were completed at each session and at 3-month follow-up. A measure of his use of clinical services was also carried out at pre-, post- and 3-month follow up. Post-intervention, the client showed non-clinical levels of depression and anxiety and these improvements were maintained at 3 months. Use of clinical services also reduced, with fewer admissions to hospital and fewer visits by specialist nurses and GPs.
This case suggests that CBT, and particularly transdiagnostic CBT, can be helpful in reducing anxiety and depression in people with heart failure. Further work evaluating the impact on quality of life and the utility of this approach with a wider group of people with heart failure and psychological distress would be advantageous.
Key learning aims
(1) Depression and anxiety are prevalent in people with heart failure.
(2) Cognitive behavioural therapy can be an effective intervention for reducing depression and anxiety in people living with heart failure.
(3) There are benefits to integrating care with this population because they present with interlinked physical and psychological needs.
Multi-morbidity, having more than two diagnosed health conditions, is becoming increasingly common within healthcare services. Approximately one third of these patients are likely to have a mental health condition. Those with multi-morbidity with physical and mental health conditions have poorer outcomes in terms of their health, increased mortality rates, and higher usage of healthcare services.
This paper presents a case of a patient with multi-morbidity, with associated mental health conditions of anxiety and depression. She was seen as part of an integrated service which provides psychological support at home alongside the nursing team. The intervention used was based on transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy (tCBT), provided over nine initial sessions and two additional booster sessions. Self-report measures were completed at intervals throughout the intervention and at follow-up. Improvements on the depression and anxiety measures were seen over the initial nine sessions, followed by a relapse at the 3-month follow-up. This was the result of a deterioration in physical health which led to a deterioration in mental health. The booster sessions mitigated further deterioration in mental health, despite the physical health worsening during this time.
This case suggests that tCBT can be helpful in reducing anxiety and depression in people with multi-morbidity. However, additional booster sessions may be required as further physical deterioration can re-trigger core beliefs and result in further mental health problems.
Key learning aims
(1) Transdiagnostic CBT can be beneficial for patients with multi-morbidity.
(2) Integrated care addressing both physical and mental health problems is beneficial for people with multi-morbidity.
(3) Monitoring deterioration in physical health is important, as this has an impact on mental health and may need addressing through psychological support.
(4) Formulation for people with multi-morbidity needs to include mental and physical health factors and their interaction.
To assess the impact of a newly developed Central-Line Insertion Site Assessment (CLISA) score on the incidence of local inflammation or infection for CLABSI prevention.
A pre- and postintervention, quasi-experimental quality improvement study.
Setting and participants:
Adult inpatients with central venous catheters (CVCs) hospitalized in an intensive care unit or oncology ward at a large academic medical center.
We evaluated CLISA score impact on insertion site inflammation and infection (CLISA score of 2 or 3) incidence in the baseline period (June 2014–January 2015) and the intervention period (April 2015–October 2017) using interrupted times series and generalized linear mixed-effects multivariable analyses. These were run separately for days-to-line removal from identification of a CLISA score of 2 or 3. CLISA score interrater reliability and photo quiz results were evaluated.
Among 6,957 CVCs assessed 40,846 times, percentage of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 in the baseline and intervention periods decreased by 78.2% (from 22.0% to 4.7%), with a significant immediate decrease in the time-series analysis (P < .001). According to the multivariable regression, the intervention was associated with lower percentage of lines with a CLISA score of 2 or 3, after adjusting for age, gender, CVC body location, and hospital unit (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.34; P < .001). According to the multivariate regression, days to removal of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 was 3.19 days faster after the intervention (P < .001). Also, line dwell time decreased 37.1% from a mean of 14 days (standard deviation [SD], 10.6) to 8.8 days (SD, 9.0) (P < .001). Device utilization ratios decreased 9% from 0.64 (SD, 0.08) to 0.58 (SD, 0.06) (P = .039).
The CLISA score creates a common language for assessing line infection risk and successfully promotes high compliance with best practices in timely line removal.
This article summarizes the results of controlled experiments in which flaked-stone points that varied in impact strength by a factor of almost three were shot at media that were increasingly inelastic and therefore likely to break the points. Broken tips were reworked if possible, and used again under the same conditions. Our results show that all damage to low impact-strength materials, especially obsidian, was generally catastrophic, and, consequently, these points could only rarely be reworked. The fact that low-strength stones were commonly used to make small arrowpoints suggests that reworking was not a primary concern for their designers. Furthermore, in those instances when broken tips could be reworked, their performance declined. In addition, reworking broken points also resulted in shapes that are uncommon in many arrowpoint assemblages. Our results suggest that the original design attributes of arrowpoints may have been less affected by reworking, and, consequently, may more accurately suggest temporal and behavioral associations.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
School belonging is generally regarded as a student's sense of affiliation or connection to his or her school. Anyone who has personally navigated the sometimes torturous terrain of secondary school is able to have some level of direct understanding of the importance that belonging, fitting in, and identifying with a school holds for most people. Educators and practitioners often work with young people who feel that they do not belong to the school community, in which they attend. An absence of belonging can manifest itself in mental health concerns, school attrition, and risk taking behaviours. Opportunities for early intervention through fostering school belonging are born from a greater understanding and awareness of what school belonging is and how it is contextualised and fostered. This special issue aims to place a focus on school belonging and highlight it as a significant social issue of our time.
Here, we report reproducible and accurate measurement of crystallographic parameters using scanning transmission electron microscopy. This is made possible by removing drift and residual scan distortion. We demonstrate real-space lattice parameter measurements with <0.1% error for complex-layered chalcogenides Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and a Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanostructured alloy. Pairing the technique with atomic resolution spectroscopy, we connect local structure with chemistry and bonding. Combining these results with density functional theory, we show that the incorporation of Se into Bi2Te3 causes charge redistribution that anomalously increases the van der Waals gap between building blocks of the layered structure. The results show that atomic resolution imaging with electrons can accurately and robustly quantify crystallography at the nanoscale.
This chapter will show that growing plants in protective structures can be enormously beneficial for commercial growers and gardeners who are producing crops all year round or trying to extend the growing season in the spring and autumn. These extra crops can attract premium prices for producers, an important factor for those whose cash flow is reduced during the winter months.
The positioning, building and management of any structure requires careful planning and preparation of the site in order to maximise the benefits and justify the additional costs involved compared to growing in the open ground.
Protective structures are made from many materials and constructed in many shapes and sizes: from the home-made polythene lean-to on an allotment, a cedar wood amateur greenhouse in a private garden to a modern, fully automated aluminium glasshouse covering many hectares. Polythene and netting tunnels, conservatories, cold frames and cloches are also considered as protected structures. What they all have in common is the ability to create an environment that induces improved plant growth compared to those growing in an open environment outside.
The uses for protective growing structures are varied. Many are used to produce edible crops grown direct in the ground or modern methods can be used where plants are grown in artificial growing media and have no contact with the soil such as hydroponic and nutrient film units.
Growers can use protected structures for a wide range of crops throughout the complete production cycle or for a specific growing period, such as propagation and establishing newly potted plants. Some houseplants and cut flower crops require carefully controlled light regimes to ensure they have colour and flower at a certain time in order to be saleable for a specific market; other plants require protection from the extremes of the weather to ensure they grow to the desired size and quality within strict time periods.
This chapter will show that commercial horticulture is a diverse and multidisciplinary global industry with thousands of commercial companies and organisations producing crops or offering their services to commercial customers, clients and retail consumers. These activities are carried out to satisfy local or regional demand, multinational operations or trading as vast global networks. These can vary from specialised plant growers to multiple retail chain stores; high street florist shops to seed producers and landscape contractors to tree surgeons, all supported by a wealth of research and development networks. With the world markets becoming more accessible and competitive it is essential that growers and suppliers are aware of how global issues will affect their existing customers and potential markets in the future. These factors could include fluctuating exchange rates within Europe or the sharp rise in global fuel prices, both dramatically affecting the supply and demand for crops. These variables can cause extreme difficulties for growers within an overcrowded, overstocked seasonal marketplace, especially where time-sensitive edible crops are being produced as any disruption in the supply chain will affect crop quality and its value. Many horticultural businesses can be divided into two main categories: those that sell their products or services to other commercial companies within the industry, these being wholesalers, and those that sell direct to consumers in retail nurseries, garden centres or multiple chain stores, these operate as retailers. There are companies that trade in two or more sectors, for example a wholesale production nursery supplying direct to its own onsite garden centre, or a landscape contractor growing plants for direct use in their private clients contracts.