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In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
At present, three-dimensional mapping is often used during cardiac ablations with an explicit goal of decreasing radiation exposure; three-dimensional mapping was introduced in our institution in 2007, but not specifically to decrease fluoroscopy time. We document fluoroscopy use and catheterisation times in this setting. Data were obtained retrospectively from patients who underwent ablation for atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia from January, 2004 to December, 2011. A total of 93 patients were included in the study. Among them, 18 patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation without three-dimensional mapping were included in Group 1, 13 patients who underwent cryoablation without three-dimensional mapping were included in Group 2, and 62 patients who underwent cryoablation with three-dimensional mapping were included in Group 3. Mean fluoroscopy times differed significantly (34.3, 23.4, and 20.3 minutes, p<0.001) when all the groups were compared. Group 3 had a shorter average fluoroscopy time that did not reach significance when compared directly with Group 2 (p=0.29). An unadjusted linear regression model showed a progressive decrease in fluoroscopy time (p=0.002). Mean total catheterisation times differed significantly (180, 211, and 210 minutes, p=0.02) and were related to increased ablation times inherent to cryoablation techniques. Acute success was achieved in 89, 100, and 97% of patients (p=0.25), and chronic success was achieved in 80, 92, and 93% of patients (p=0.38). Complication rates were similar (17, 23, and 7%, p=0.14). In conclusion, three-dimensional mapping systems decrease fluoroscopy times even without an explicit goal of zero fluoroscopy. Efficacy and safety of the procedure have not changed.
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