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The condition of caregivers is important to the quality of care received by people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), especially at the late disease stages. This study addresses the distress placed on caregivers by participants’ neuropsychiatric symptoms at different stages of PD in Taiwan
This prospective study enrolled 108 people with PD. All participants were examined with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Caregiver distress was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Statistical analysis was used to explore the PD-related factors that contribute to caregiver distress.
The mean follow-up interval in the 108 PD participants were 24.0 ± 10.2 months with no participant lost to follow-up due to death. NPI-distress (the sum of NPI caregiver distress scale across the 12 domains of the NPI) was positively correlated with NPI-sum (the total score across the 12 domains of the NPI) (r = 0.787, p < 0.001), CDR (r = 0.403, p < 0.001), UPRDS (r = 0.276, p = 0.004), and disease duration (r = 0.246, p = 0.002), but negatively correlated with CASI (r = −0.237, p = 0.043) and MMSE (r = −0.281, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only NPI-sum and disease duration were independently correlated with NPI-distress.
The disease duration and NPI-sum are independent predictors of caregiver distress in Taiwanese populations with PD. Early detection and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with PD can help decrease caregiver distress.
To develop a theoretical model explaining the longitudinal changes in the caregiving process for family caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Taiwan.
A longitudinal, grounded theory approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews and an open-ended interview guide. We conducted 42 interviews over a two-year period; each participant was interviewed at least once every six months. All participants were interviewed in their home. The participants total of 13 family caregivers of persons with MCI.
One core theme emerged: “protective preparation.” This reflected the family caregiving process of preparation for a further decline in cognitive function, and protection from the impact of low self-esteem, accidents, and symptoms of comorbidities for the family member with MCI. Protective preparation contained three components: ambivalent normalization, vigilant preparation, and protective management.
Interventions to help family caregivers manage the changes in persons with MCI can reduce caregiver burden. Our findings could provide a knowledge base for use by healthcare providers to develop and implement strategies to reduce caregiver burden for family caregivers of persons with MCI.
It is controversial to observe or close symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula in infants. We herein describe a medium-sized symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula that underwent rapid spontaneous closure in an infant aged <3 months.
Synthesis of (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)1-yTiyO3 (y=0 and 0.1; PCFN and PCFNT) ceramics by a reaction-sintering process was investigated. The mixture of raw materials was pressed and sintered into ceramics without any calcination stage involved. The density 5.88g/cm3 (91.6% of the theoretical value) is reached at 1270°C for 2 h soak time in PCFN. Densification increased as B-site was substituted by 10% Ti and a density value 6.21g/cm3 (98.1% of theoretical value) was obtained after 2 h sintering at 1270°C. Grains are of 4.6–19.3μm in PCFN and 2.5–16.5μm in PCFNT at 1150–1270°C. Grain growth was retarded as the B-site was substituted by 10% Ti in PCFN ceramics.
Nanosized lithium manganate powders are successfully synthesized via a newly developed reverse-microemulsion (RμE) process. Monophasic LiMn2O4 powders are obtained after calcining the precursor powders at 700°C. The particle size of the spinel compound significantly depends on the concentration of the aqueous phase. Increasing the water-to-oil volume ratio results in an increase in the particle size. While the aqueous phase is equal to 0.5 M, the size of the obtained LiMn2O4 powder is around 60-70 nm. It is found that the specific capacity of nanosized LiMn2O4 particles is greater than that of submicron particles. The large surface area of ultrafine particles is considered to facilitate the intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions during the cycling test.
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