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In this work, the relationship between the substrate crystallinity and the on-state resistances of silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) was investigated. PCSSs with different channel lengths were fabricated on semi insulating 6H–SiC having different crystal qualities. A method was introduced for determining the photoconductive capacity of the SiC PCSSs. The experimental data suggest that the photoconductive capacity decreases sharply with the degradation of the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of the 6H–SiC substrates. It is found that increasing the carrier mobility is a key factor for reducing the on-state resistance of the 6H–SiC PCSSs. Moreover, the results in this work present reference for the selection of 6H–SiC substrates for the fabrication of PCSSs and some other photoelectric devices.
Three methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from liquid (LM), solid (SM) and epithelium (EM) fractions taken from the rumen of Jinnan cattle in China. After the amplification by PCR using methanogen-specific primers Met86F and Met1340R, equal quantities of PCR products from the same fractions from each of the four cattle were mixed together and used to construct the three libraries. Sequence analysis showed that the 268 LM clones were divided into 35 phylotypes with 18 sequences of phylotypes affiliated with the genus Methanobrevibacter (84.3% of clones). The 135 SM clones were divided into 19 phylotypes with 11 phylotypes affiliated with the genus Methanobrevibacter (77.8%). The 267 EM clones were divided into 33 phylotypes with 15 phylotypes affiliated with the genus Methanobrevibacter (77.2%). Clones closely related to Methanomicrobium mobile and Methanobrevibacter wolinii were only found in the LM library, and those to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii only in the SM library. LM library comprised 12.4% unidentified euryarchaeal clones, SM library 23.7% and EM library 25.5%, respectively. Five phylotypes (accession number: EF055528 and EF055531–EF055534) did not belong to the Euryarchaeota sequences we had known. One possible new genus (represented by phylotype E17, accession number EF055528) belonging to Methanobacteriaceae was identified from EM library. Quantitative real-time PCR for the first time revealed that epithelium fraction had significantly higher density of methanogens, with methanogenic mcrA gene copies (9.95 log 10 (copies per gram of wet weight)) than solid (9.26, P < 0.01) and the liquid (8.44, P < 0.001). The three clone libraries also appeared different in Shannon index (EM library 2.12, LM library 2.05 and SM library 1.73). Our results showed that there were apparent differences in the methanogenic diversity and abundance in the three different fractions within the rumen of Jinnan cattle, with Methanobrevibacter species predominant in all the three libraries and with epithelium fraction having more unknown species and higher density of methanogens.
Progenies derived from rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) plants pollinated by Oenothera biennis exhibited numerous morphological and developmental traits. Some variant individuals appeared in generation D2. From generations D3 to D6, a large number of variants were observed, showing distinct variable traits including giant embryos. Statistical analysis on D6 lines showed significant differences between progenies and their rice parental line in several main traits, including plant height (49.2–164.5 cm), panicle number (12.1–38.2), panicle length (20.3–30.3 cm), length of sword leaf (13.8–57.5 cm), leaf width (11.1–25.2 mm), grain number of main panicle (142.0–367.0), percentage of seed setting (0.8–99.0%), 1000-grain weight (19.7–33.8 g) and time from germination to panicle emergence (90.0–108.0 days). Most of the variable coefficients were above 20% (the highest was 40.8%). Through pedigree selection of these plants, genetically stable lines were obtained, which are useful for rice breeding. Results from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that several rice lines contained extensive genetic variations, which included disappearance of rice parental bands and/or appearance of novel bands.
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