To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Avascularity on CT angiography source images (CTASI) may better predict final infarct volume in acute stroke as compared to early ischemic changes on non-contract CT. These CTASI findings may represent infarct core and help determine the extent of salvageable tissue. However, the extent of avascularity on CTASI may overestimate infarct volume if transit of contrast is prolonged due to proximal artery occlusion. We present a case where CT-perfusion (CTP) and time-resolved CT-angiography (CTA) identified salvageable tissue thought to be infarcted on CTASI.
Although intravenous thrombolysis increases the probability of a good
functional outcome in carefully selected patients with acute ischemic
stroke, a substantial proportion of patients who receive thrombolysis do not
have a good outcome. Several recent trials of mechanical thrombectomy appear
to indicate that this treatment may be superior to thrombolysis. We
therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the
clinical effectiveness and safety of new-generation mechanical thrombectomy
devices with intravenous thrombolysis (if eligible) compared with
intravenous thrombolysis (if eligible) in patients with acute ischemic
stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion. We systematically
searched seven databases for randomized controlled trials published between
January 2005 and March 2015 comparing stent retrievers or thromboaspiration
devices with best medical therapy (with or without intravenous thrombolysis)
in adults with acute ischemic stroke. We assessed risk of bias and overall
quality of the included trials. We combined the data using a fixed or random
effects meta-analysis, where appropriate. We identified 1579 studies; of
these, we evaluated 122 full-text papers and included five randomized
control trials (n=1287). Compared with patients treated medically, patients
who received mechanical thrombectomy were more likely to be functionally
independent as measured by a modified Rankin score of 0-2 (odds ratio, 2.39;
95% confidence interval, 1.88-3.04; I2=0%). This finding was
robust to subgroup analysis. Mortality and symptomatic intracerebral
hemorrhage were not significantly different between the two groups.
Mechanical thrombectomy significantly improves functional independence in
appropriately selected patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Purpose: Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has been performed to predict which patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are at risk of developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients with severe arterial narrowing may have significant reduction in perfusion. However, many patients have less severe arterial narrowing. There is a paucity of literature evaluating perfusion changes which occur with mild to moderate narrowing. The purpose of our study was to investigate serial whole-brain CTP/computed tomography angiography in aneurysm-related subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients with mild to moderate angiographic narrowing. Methods: We retrospectively studied 18 aSAH patients who had baseline and follow-up whole-brain CTP/computed tomography angiography. Thirty-one regions of interest/hemisphere at six levels were grouped by vascular territory. Arterial diameters were measured at the circle of Willis. The correlation between arterial diameter and change in CTP values, change in CTP in with and without DCI, and response to intra-arterial vasodilator therapy in DCI patients was evaluated. Results: There was correlation among the overall average cerebral blood flow (CBF; R=0.49, p<0.04), mean transit time (R=–0.48, p=0.04), and angiographic narrowing. In individual arterial territories, there was correlation between changes in CBF and arterial diameter in the middle cerebral artery (R=0.53, p=0.03), posterior cerebral artery (R=0.5, p=0.03), and anterior cerebral artery (R=0.54, p=0.02) territories. Prolonged mean transit time was correlated with arterial diameter narrowing in the middle cerebral artery territory (R=0.52, p=0.03). Patients with DCI tended to have serial worsening of CBF compared with those without DCI (p=0.055). Conclusions: Our preliminary study demonstrates there is a correlation between mild to moderate angiographic narrowing and serial changes in perfusion in patients with aSAH. Patients developing DCI tended to have progressively worsening CBF compared with those not developing DCI.
Background and Purpose: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been, historically, an alternative to open endarterectomy (CEA) for stroke prevention in high risk patients with carotid atherosclerosis. We sought to determine the rates of periprocedural and long-term stroke or death and the risk factors for complications after CAS in our high risk patient population. Methods: Clinical and treatment variables of consecutive CAS procedures performed between 2002 and 2011 were analyzed. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses we examined how patient characteristics influenced outcomes and changes in modified Rankin Score (mRS). Results: In 152 patients, the composite total of periprocedural death, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and myocardial infarction (MI) rate was 3.95% (6/152). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was strongly associated with periprocedural complications (p<0.001). Coronary artery disease/peripheral vascular disease (CAD/PVD) (p=0.03), dyslipidemia (p=0.02), CKD (p=0.01), and contralateral internal carotid artery stenosis (p=0.02) were non-modifiable risk factors for mRS increase. There were 25 deaths, 8 strokes, 11 TIAs, and 1 MI (mean follow-up 38.4 months, range 0-116 months). The presence of CAD/PVD (p=0.009) and dyslipidemia (p=0.002) were significantly associated with long-term complications. Conclusion: CAS was performed with low periprocedural complications in high-risk patients. Our rates compare very favorably to large-scale trials that have ideal patients. This data encourages the consideration of CAS in patients considered high risk for CEA and provides possible patient characteristics (CKD) to help with periprocedural risk stratification.
Background: Recurrence after intracranial aneurysm coiling is a highly prevalent outcome, yet to be understood. We investigated clinical, radiological and procedural factors associated with major recurrence of coiled intracranial aneurysms. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected coiling data (2003-12). We recorded characteristics of aneurysms, patients and interventional techniques, pre-discharge and angiographic follow-up occlusion. The Raymond-Roy classification was used; major recurrence was a change from class I or II to class III, increase in class III remnant, and any recurrence requiring any type of retreatment. Identification of risk factors associated with major recurrence used univariate Cox Proportional Hazards Model followed by multivariate regression analysis of covariates with P<0.1. Results: A total of 467 aneurysms were treated in 435 patients: 283(65%) harboring acutely ruptured aneurysms, 44(10.1%) patients died before discharge and 33(7.6%) were lost to follow-up. A total of 1367 angiographic follow-up studies (range: 1-108 months, Median [interquartile ranges (IQR)]: 37[14-62]) was performed in 384(82.2%) aneurysms. The major recurrence rate was 98(21%) after 6(3.5-22.5) months. Multivariate analysis (358 patients with 384 aneurysms) revealed the risk factors for major recurrence: age>65 y (hazard ratio (HR): 1.61; P=0.04), male sex (HR: 2.13; P<0.01), hypercholesterolemia (HR: 1.65; P=0.03), neck size ≥4 mm (HR: 1.79; P=0.01), dome size ≥7 mm (HR: 2.44; P<0.01), non-stent-assisted coiling (HR: 2.87; P=0.01), and baseline class III (HR: 2.18; P<0.01). Conclusion: Approximately one fifth of the intracranial aneurysms resulted in major recurrence. Modifiable factors for major recurrence were choice of stent-assisted technique and confirmation of adequate baseline occlusion (Class I/II) in the first coiling procedure.
Different endovascular techniques can be employed to achieve vessel recanalization in acute stroke. We assessed whether an endovascular strategy that included angioplasty was safe and effectively recanalized acutely occluded intracranial vessels.
We retrospectively reviewed 70 patients that received intra-arterial therapy for acute stroke. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they had received angioplasty as part of their endovascular treatment.
Angioplasty was used in the treatment of 35/70 patients (50%). Median baseline NIHSS was 15. The site of occlusion was at the M1 in 11 patients, M1/M2 in 3, ICA/M1 in 13 and vertebrobasilar in 8 patients. Intravenous thrombolysis was administered to 16/35 patients (46%). Angioplasty was used alone in 4 patients, in combination with intra-arterial thrombolysis in 27 and with a mechanical retrieval device or stent in 13 patients. Recanalization (TICI 2-3) was achieved in 23/35 patients (66%). Median time from symptom onset to recanalization was six hours. In patients where angioplasty was employed, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 2/35 (6%), which was similar to patients that were not treated with angioplasty. A favorable functional outcome (mRS=2) was achieved in 20% (7/35) at 24 hour and 34% (12/35) at one month. All patients that had a favorable outcome had recanalized.
In this small cohort, an endovascular treatment strategy that employed angioplasty was safe and effectively recanalized acutely occluded intracranial vessels. Angioplasty should be considered as a potential treatment option in interventional acute stroke trials.
Different strategies have been employed to recanalize acutely occluded middle cerebral and internal carotid arteries (ICA) in the setting of acute stroke including intravenous and intra-arterial tPA. However, pharmaceutical thrombolysis alone, may not be effective in patients with a large amount of clot volume (complete M1, terminal internal carotid artery). We report our initial experience with endovascular clot disruption using a soft silicone balloon in addition to intravenous or intraarterial thrombolysis with tPA.
This is a retrospective review of nine patients with symptoms of acute stroke from clot in the middle cerebral or internal carotid territories who were treated with intracranial balloon angioplasty. All patients presented with symptoms of acute anterior circulation stroke less than six hours from onset. Patients in whom computed tomography (CT) angiography confirmed the presence of large vessel clot (terminal ICA, M1 or proximal M2) were included in the study. A CT perfusion was performed providing maps of cerebral blood volume, flow and mean transit time. If the patient presented less than three hours from onset then intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was also administered. Intra-arterial tPA was delivered into the clot. If the volume of clot was judged to be significant by the treating neurointerventionist, then a limited trial of tPA was administered intraarterially followed by balloon angioplasty of persistant clot. The time from imaging to vessel recanalization was recorded. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the modified Rankin scale and Barthel Index.
Diagnostic CT perfusion studies were performed in 7 (78%), all of which showed a significant amount of salvageable tissue as judged by the treating neurointerventionist and neurologist. Recanalization (TIMI 2 or 3) was possible in 8 (89%). There were no cases of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and 2 (22%) asymptomatic hemorrhages. The average time from performance of the initial emergency CT to vessel recanalization was 2.1 hours with mean time from symptom onset to vessel recanalization of 4.1 hours. Five (56%) patients had good outcomes, 1 (11%) had mild and 3 (33%) had moderate to severe disability.
Clot angioplasty can potentially shorten recanalization times in well-selected patients and can be an effective complimentary procedure in patients with tPA resistant clot. Angioplasty can be performed with a very low complication rate using the technique described and may be associated with good outcomes.
To determine the mean time for acquiring computed tomogram perfusion (CTP) and CT angiogram (CTA) images in acute stroke. To determine and compare processing and interpretation times amongst three groups of radiologists with varying degree of expertise: two radiology residents (Group I), two neuroradiology fellows (Group II) and four consultant neuroradiologists (Group III).
The mean time of acquisition of CTA and CTP studies was calculated among ten patients presenting with acute stroke. All readers had to process the CTA and CTP images, interpret them (for presence or absence of thrombus and penumbra) and save them on the GE Advantage Windows workstation. The mean time for processing and interpreting these studies was calculated.
The mean time for acquisition of CTA and CTP studies in the ten patients was 14.6 ± 5.9 minutes. The time taken for CTA processing and interpretation in Groups I, II and III was 2.3 ± 1.3 min, 1.6 ± 0.4 min and 1.5 ± 0.7 min respectively. The time required for CTP processing and interpretation by the same groups was 5.2 ± 1.7 min, 4.5 ± 1.5 min and 4.1 ± 1.1 min respectively. There was a statistically significant difference of means between Groups I and III in the CTA and CTP processing and interpretation times (p=0.02, p=0.01 respectively) but no statistical difference between Groups I and II (p=0.15, p=0.22 respectively) or Groups II and III (p=0.31, p=0.30 respectively).
The CTA and CTP studies can be performed, processed and interpreted quickly in acute stroke.
The patient was a 20-year-old male with an eight-month history of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). He presented to the emergency room with confusion and decreased level of consciousness that had worsened over the prior two weeks. He complained of generalized fatigue, weakness, intermittent nausea and vomiting and depression. His diet had consisted of only soda pop over the six weeks preceding admission.
The patient was disoriented and had a depressed level of consciousness. He appeared pale, cachectic, and had poor hygiene. Examination of the central nervous system showed lateral nystagmus and slowed motor activity in the both upper and lower extremities. Reflexes were bilaterally 2+ except at the ankles where they were 1+. Plantar responses were bilaterally downgoing.
Background: Recanalization rates and patient outcomes in acute occlusion of the carotid terminus have previously been poor. The use of stent-retrievers has resulted in better recanalization and patient outcomes. We sought to compare outcomes in patients treated with stent-retrievers to outcomes in older techniques. Methods: We retrospectively compared a stent-retriever cohort to a historical cohort. We evaluated recanalization rates and good outcomes (defined as mRS < 2 at 30 days or 10 point drop in NIHSS). Results: There were twenty patients treated with stent-retrievers versus nine without. The recanalization rate in patients treated with stent retrievers was significantly higher than that of other modalities (90% vs 33%, p=0.004). Good outcomes were significantly higher in the stent retriever cohort (70% vs 22%, p=0.041). Conclusion: The use of stent-retrievers in patients with carotid “T” occlusions shows promise in comparison to older techniques. A randomized trial comparing stent-retriever therapy to IV thrombolysis is warranted to determine the efficacy of this new generation of devices.
Endovascular coiling of aneurysms crossing the Circle of Willis has been described in small case series. The technical challenges in manipulating a stent across the Circle of Willis lie in negotiating difficult angles and small arteries. We present our experience with treating aneurysms by stent assistance in which the Circle of Willis was crossed to facilitate optimal stent deployment.
Materials and methods:
We retrospectively reviewed the cases in our institution from January 2009 to June 2012 in which the Circle of Willis was traversed to facilitate optimal stent deployment. We measured the diameter of the communicating arteries traversed, caliber of the target arteries in which the stent was deployed and the most acute angle negotiated (“critical angle”). We compare our results with other published series in the literature.
Eight patients fulfilled the criteria: 5 males (45-66 years). There were three anterior and five posterior circulation aneurysms. Four of the aneurysms were ruptured. The PCOM was traversed in five cases, the ACOM in three cases. The mean diameter of the communicating artery was 1.17mm. The mean diameter of target arteries was 1.27mm. The “critical angle” was 72-147 degrees. In all patients, there was satisfactory obliteration of the aneurysm. There were two cases of minor SAH post procedure.
Utilizing the Circle of Willis for optimal stent placement in aneurysm remodeling is technically feasible but challenging. This technique can be performed successfully in patients with acute SAH. The procedural risk must be balanced against potential complications such as SAH.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.