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To examine the association between egg consumption and measures of insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR) and metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI).
Egg consumption, categorized as <1/week, 1 to <3/week, 3 to <5/week and ≥5/week, was measured using a validated FFQ. SI, AIR and MCRI were determined from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests.
Non-diabetic participants (n 949) in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS).
Egg consumption was inversely associated with SI and MCRI, and positively associated with fasting insulin in regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and dietary factors (β = −0·22, 95 % CI −0·38, −0·045, P = 0·05 for SI; β = −0·20, 95 % CI −0·34, −0·055, P = 0·005 for MCRI; β = 0·35, 95 % CI 0·15, 0·54, P = 0·002 for fasting insulin; all P values for linear trend). These associations remained significant after additionally adjusting for energy intake or dietary saturated fat, although dietary cholesterol and BMI attenuated these associations to non-significance. Egg consumption was not associated with AIR.
Dietary cholesterol and BMI appear to mediate the inverse association of egg consumption with insulin sensitivity and clearance. Alternatively, egg consumption may be clustered with other dietary behaviours which increase BMI, hence negatively impacting on insulin sensitivity and clearance.
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