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This opinion article, by Channarong Intahchomphoo and Christian Tschirhart, explains the evolution of data and how it becomes useful information and then insightful knowledge. In the current era we are witnessing a high increase in the development and adaptation of artificial intelligence (AI) in society. AI technologies have the ability to process large volumes of data and information to help in finding insightful knowledge. However, AI is not perfect and there are ethical concerns, particularly when unintended negative consequences result from it; this paper also discusses ethical concerns currently confronting our society related to the freedom of expression and hate speech issues with AI. Importantly, this paper notes that governments are working to find ways to regulate social media and internet companies through legal channels as governments are no longer confident in the ability of social media and internet companies to self-regulate and thereby to guide society on what content is right or wrong. This is a critical new development in internet and AI governance that information and technology professionals and public and private organizations need to monitor closely the situation as it evolves.
This article consists of two parts. The first part is a review of the book entitled, ‘The Ethical Algorithm: The Science of Socially Aware Algorithm Design’, written by Professors Michael Kearns and Aaron Roth of the Computer and Information Science Department, University of Pennsylvania. The book was published in 2019 by Oxford University Press. The second part consists of thoughts learned from the book and how they could be applied to the work of legal information management professionals when facing tasks related to the ethical algorithms in artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. How online privacy continues to be the main concern in the AI and robot era will be discussed, as well as the rise of concerns over AI and robots and how they might make unfair decisions toward vulnerable populations which could then become acts of discrimination. Examples of real-world problems of AI and robotics are also noted in this article.
This article studies the social and technological barriers that prevent documented and undocumented female migrants in Thailand's Chiang Mai Province from improving their literacy skills and using social media such as Facebook. In July 2019, our team conducted nine focus-group discussions (FGD) with 38 participants using a picture sorting activity. Using graphics in the FGDs helped us to better engage with migrant populations with low literacy skills. Demographic information of each FGD participant was also collected. Findings show that Thailand's current laws for migrant workers are the barrier that have negative impacts on literacy improvement and social media usage among both documented and undocumented ethnic Shan female migrants from Myanmar. As Thailand's law only permits migrants to work in labor-intensive jobs with minimum wage and no benefits, they do not have time and energy to spend on learning the Thai language and other skills. This reduces the migrants’ abilities to interact with Facebook. Additionally, undocumented migrants could not buy a SIM card with the cellular data plan to use their Facebook account directly from their cellphones because Thailand's laws require all network providers to officially register all SIM card purchases and only sell to documented persons.
This paper examines peer-reviewed publications to learn about the relationships between artificial intelligence (AI) and the human race. For this systematic review, papers were collected from three academic databases: Scopus, Web of Science, and Academic Search Complete. From 1,222 papers reviewed, 36 papers were included. The findings indicate that there are four relationships between AI and race (i). AI causes unequal opportunities for people from certain racial groups, (ii). AI helps to detect racial discrimination, (iii). AI is applied to study health conditions of specific racial population groups, and (iv). AI is used to study demographics and facial images of people from different racial backgrounds. To widen the knowledge related to AI and race, all four finding categories in this review included supplementary studies as lessons learned for legal information management research. The authors, Channarong Intahchomphoo and Odd Erik Gundersen, use these findings to discuss how AI could impact libraries and how legal information management professionals might have to cope with the problem of biased AI.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a widely discussed topic in many fields including law. Legal studies scholars, particularly in the domain of technology and internet law, have expressed their hopes and concerns regarding AI. This project aims to study how Canada's courts have referred to AI, given the importance of the reasonings of justices to the policy makers who determine society's rules for the usage of AI in the future. Decisions from all levels of both Canada's provincial and federal courts are used as the data sources for this research. The findings indicate that there are four legal contexts in which AI has been referred to in the Canadian caselaw including: legal research, investment tax credits, trademarks and access to government records. In this article the authors use these findings to make suggestions for legal information management professionals on how to develop collections and reference services that are in line with the new information needs of their users regarding AI and the rule of law.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the scholarly peer-reviewed publications relating to social media objectives and challenges of law libraries. The methodology is that of a systematic literature review. The studies included in this literature review shows that the social media objectives of law libraries are: promoting and marketing resources and services, supporting legal research teaching and tutorials and providing reference services. Secondly, law libraries face some challenges with their social media usage regarding the quality and scope of content, technological difficulties and online privacy.
The Principles of Legal Research (PLR) website of the University of Ottawa's Brian Dickson Law Library is a bilingual (English and French) online learning tool for all first year students in both Common Law and Civil Law.1 Law librarians use this e-learning website to facilitate teaching components such as student assignments and assessments. This user experience study aims to investigate law students’ real experience with the system. Their feedback will be used for future development planning as well as analysing user behaviour trends. The authors investigate the following aspects: accuracy of information, interface design, navigation system, Web 2.0, social media, and smartphone version.
The intersection of freedom of information, privacy legislation and library services may be interpreted as the relation between two bodies (law and library) and how they influence one another directly and indirectly. This means library services can be shaped enormously by both federal and provincial freedom of information and privacy laws. We notice that there are cases in various Canadian courts involving disagreements concerning the rule of law in the fields of freedom of information and privacy with libraries. The combined effects of legislation and stronger library policies may make it more challenging for users to understand how to use shared library resources and services properly. For many libraries, this means operational policies and professional ethics codes have to be revised to strictly respect the users and employees’ confidentiality rights. The research method used for this paper included a search of relevant Canadian court cases as case studies.
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