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Background: The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) observed increased mortality among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) starting in 2017. In this study, we compared NICU patients with CLABSIs before and after 2017, and quantified the impact of epidemiological factors on 30-day survival. Methods: We included 1,276 NICU patients from 8–16 participating CNISP hospitals from the pre-2017 period (2009–2016) and the post-2017 period (2017–2022) using standardized definitions and questionnaires. We used Cox regression modeling to assess the impact of age at date of positive culture, sex, birthweight, CLABSI microorganism, region of the country, and surveillance period (before 2017 vs after 2017) on time to 30-day all-cause mortality from date of positive culture. Gestational age was not available for this analysis. We reported model outputs as hazard ratios with 95% CIs. Results: In total, 769 (60%) NICU CLABSIs were reported in the pre-2017 period and 507 (40%) in the post-2017 period. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 8% (n = 100 of 1,276) overall, and significantly higher after 2017 (12%, n = 61 of 507) than before 2017 (5%, n = 39 of 769) (P < .001).
During the post-2017 period, cases were significantly younger: 16 days (IQR, 9–33) versus 21 days (IQR, 11–49) (P = .002). Median days from ICU admission to infection were shorter: 14 (IQR, 8–31) versus 19 (IQR, 10–41) (P < .001). More gram-negative CLABSIs were identified (29% vs 24%; P = .040) and fewer gram-positive CLABSIs were identified (64% vs 72%; P = .006) compared to the pre-2017 period. Mortality was higher in CLABSIs caused by gram-negative bacteria (15%, n = 50 of 328) than gram-positive bacteria (4.4%, n = 39 of 877) (P < .001), and mortality was higher in neonates with birthweight <1,000 g (11%, n = 71 of 673) compared to those weighing ≥1,000 g (5%, n = 28 of 560) (P < .001).
Adjusting for all other factors, survival modeling indicated that NICU CLABSIs identified in the post-2017 period had 2.12 (95% CI, 1.23–3.66) times the hazard ratio of 30-day all-cause mortality compared to those before 2017 (P < .006). Those identified with a gram-positive bacterium had a 0.28 hazard ratio (95% CI, 0.12–0.65) of 30-day mortality compared to those with a gram-negative bacterium or fungus (P = .003). In the fully adjusted model, age, sex, and birthweight were not significantly associated with NICU CLABSI survival. Conclusions: NICU patients with CLABSIs had significantly higher all-cause mortality between 2017–2022 compared to 2009–2016, and those who acquired gram-positive–associated CLABSIs had improved survival compared to other organisms. Further work is needed to identify and understand factors driving the increased mortality among NICU CLABSI patients from 2017–2022.
Incidence and risk factors for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) are well established in adults, though data are lacking in pediatrics. We aimed to determine incidence of and risk factors for rCDI in pediatrics.
This retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients was conducted at 3 tertiary-care hospitals in Canada with laboratory-confirmed CDI between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2017. rCDI was defined as an episode of CDI occurring 8 weeks or less from diagnostic test date of the primary episode. We used logistic regression to determine and quantify risk factors significantly associated with rCDI.
In total, 286 patients were included in this study. The incidence proportion for rCDI was 12.9%. Among hospitalized patients, the incidence rate was estimated at 2.6 cases of rCDI per 1,000 hospital days at risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.9). Immunocompromised patients had higher incidence of rCDI (17.5%; P = .03) and higher odds of developing rCDI independently of antibiotic treatment given for the primary episode (odds ratio [OR], 2.31; 95% CI, 1.12–5.09). Treatment with vancomycin monotherapy did not show statistically significant protection from rCDI, independently of immunocompromised status (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.05–1.15]).
The identification of increased risk of rCDI in immunocompromised pediatric patients warrants further research into alternative therapies, prophylaxis, and prevention strategies to prevent recurrent disease burden within these groups. Treatment of the initial episode with vancomycin did not show statistically significant protection from rCDI.
In a tertiary-care, pediatric healthcare center in Québec, Canada, healthcare workers who reported a household exposure to confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were allowed to work. On repeated testing, 15% became severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with no nosocomial transmission. Being asymptomatic and receiving a booster dose >7 days prior to exposure was protective against becoming SARS-CoV-2–positive by PCR.
This document is part of the “SHEA Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) White Paper Series.” It is intended to provide practical, expert opinion, and/or evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions about CLABSI detection and prevention in the NICU. This document serves as a companion to the CDC Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) Guideline for Prevention of Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients. Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most frequent invasive infections among infants in the NICU and contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. Infants who survive CLABSIs have prolonged hospitalization resulting in increased healthcare costs and suffer greater comorbidities including worse neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes. A bundled approach to central line care practices in the NICU has reduced CLABSI rates, but challenges remain. This document was authored by pediatric infectious diseases specialists, neonatologists, advanced practice nurse practitioners, infection preventionists, members of the HICPAC guideline-writing panel, and members of the SHEA Pediatric Leadership Council. For the selected topic areas, the authors provide practical approaches in question-and-answer format, with answers based on consensus expert opinion within the context of the literature search conducted for the companion HICPAC document and supplemented by other published information retrieved by the authors. Two documents in the series precede this one: “Practical approaches to Clostridioides difficile prevention” published in August 2018 and “Practical approaches to Staphylococcus aureus prevention,” published in September 2020.
Background: Sink drains can act as breeding grounds for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, leading to outbreaks. Drains provide a protected humid environment where nutrient-rich substances are available. Recent and growing installation of water and energy conservation devices have led to increased frequency of drain blockage due to biofilm accumulation. Ineffective drainage may lead to backflow and accumulation of water in the sink during use, increasing the risk of contaminated aerosols formation or direct contamination of surrounding material and equipment. Cleaning and disinfection procedures of sink drains need to be improved to prevent amplification and dispersion of MDR bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate alternatives to reduce the biofilm and risk of contamination through aerosols. Methods: Sink drains from patient rooms were randomly selected in the neonatal intensive care unit of a 450-bed pediatric hospital. We tested 4 approaches: (1) new drain; (2) self-disinfecting heating-vibration drain; (3) chemical disinfection with 20 ppm chlorine for 30 minutes; and (4) thermal disinfection with > 90°C water for 30 minutes. A special device was used during disinfection to increase the disinfectant contact time with the biofilm. Treatments were conducted weekly, with prior sampling of drain water. Other drains were also sampled weekly, including a control drain with no intervention. Bacterial loads were evaluated using flow cytometry and heterotrophic plate counts. The drains were made of stainless steel, a heat-conductive material. Results: Preliminary results show that chlorine disinfection had a small impact (<1 log) on culturable bacteria at 48 hours after disinfection but not after a week or repeated weekly disinfection. Thermal disinfection using boiling water is promising, showing an important decrease of 4 log in culturable cells after 48 hours and a concentration still 100× lower 1 week after the disinfection. Repeated weekly thermal disinfection maintained lower culturable levels in the drain. No culturable cells were detected in water from the self-disinfecting drain 2 months after installation, whereas the new drain became fully colonized to concentrations similar to those of drains prior to interventions during the same period. Conclusions: Thermal disinfection of drains is a promising alternative to chlorine. This solution is interesting because it is nontoxic and easy to perform, requiring a small volume of hot water. The rapid recolonization of the new drain suggests that replacing contaminated drains is not a sustainable solution and would need to be paired with a thermal disinfection program to maintain low culturable cells.
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are likely part of the rapid response and control in influenza pandemics and institutional outbreaks. We conducted a systematic review to appraise the current evidence on the use of NAIs among healthcare workers in the context of an influenza pandemic.
We performed viral culture of respiratory specimens in 118 severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–infected healthcare workers (HCWs), ∼2 weeks after symptom onset. Only 1 HCW (0.8%) had a positive culture. No factors for prolonged viral shedding were identified. Infectivity is resolved in nearly all HCWs ∼2 weeks after symptom onset.
Background: Neurosurgeries are at high risk of surgical site infections (SSI), a complication associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Our aim was to measure SSI incidence and risk factors following pediatric neurosurgery at CHU Sainte-Justine, the provincial center for pediatric craniofacial surgery in Québec, Canada. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of all patients with elective neurosurgery performed at CHUSJ between October 2014 and October 2018. Medical records were reviewed to compare demographics, clinical presentations, and outcomes of patients. SSIs occurring within 30 days of a procedure without implant and up to 90 days with implant, were identified. SSI incidence was measured in patient years, and risk factors were assessed using univariate logistic regressions. Results: In total, 379 patients were included with an overall SSI incidence of 3.96 patient years. We found a higher SSI incidence in 2014–2015 compared to 2016–2018 (1.82 vs 4.83 patient years). The median age was 3.90 years, and cases seemed younger than controls (1.45 vs 4.15 years). No difference between groups was found for sex, body mass index, prematurity, and length of hospitalization. The proportion of deep SSIs was greater than superficial SSIs (53.3% vs 46.7%). Cases were more likely to present with a more severe ASA score, previous history of neurosurgery, neurological conditions, and pulmonary conditions than controls: OR, 3.90 (95% CI, 1.36–11.49); OR, 2.59 (95% CI, 0.88–7.40); OR, 2.77 (95% CI, 0.98–8.41), and OR, 3.21 (95% CI, 0.86–9.94), respectively. Among patients with history of neurosurgery, a higher proportion of cases experienced a cerebrospinal fluid leak (28.6% vs 2.2%). Most patients (85.8%) received preoperative prophylactic antibiotic. Of those, 49.3% were considered appropriate based on antibiotic and timing of administration. When antibiotic dosage was also considered, the number of patients who received an appropriate antibiotic therapy decreased radically. Conclusions: Patients with comorbidities, especially neurological and pulmonary conditions, are at higher risk of SSI after neurosurgery. We are currently working on a detailed analysis to explain the increase in SSI incidence after 2016. Finally, prophylactic antibiotic therapy needs to be improved and its impact on SSI rates needs to be monitored.
Background: Nosocomial infections cause 4%–56% mortality in newborns. Several epidemiological studies have shown that transmission of opportunistic pathogens from the sink to the patient, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Serratia marcescens are associated with nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In this project, we aimed to develop fast, accurate, and high-throughput multilocus sequence typing assays (HiMLST-Illumina) to detect opportunistic pathogens to assess their distribution in the sink environment of NICUs and their transfer to patients. Methods: Genome sequences of P. aeruginosa (n = 45), S. maltophilia (n = 23) and S. marcescens (n = 34) strains were retrieved from public genome databases to build their pangenomes, using the open-source PGAdb-builder server. The core genome was identified for each opportunistic pathogen and was searched for genes displaying the highest polymorphism. The minimal number of loci to include in a HiMLST-Illumina assay was determined by comparing topology of phylogenetic trees of concatenated loci based on genome similarity, computed as the average nucleotide identity (ANI) score. The primers used for HiMLST-Illumina schemes were designed in silico on a conserved domain and were tested on reference strains of each species. Results: Bioinformatics analyses showed that 3–4 loci (<300 base pairs per locus) distinguished strains with the same performances than ANI scores. The assays were tested using opportunistic pathogen isolates and environmental DNA originating from NICU sinks. The HiMLST-Illumina analysis of environmental DNA revealed the presence of at least 1 of the 3 studied opportunistic pathogens in 50% of sampled drains (n = 20). In a previous sampling, P. aeruginosa was isolated on selective culture media before and 48 hours after disinfection of a sink drain with chlorine. S. marcescens was also isolated from another sink 2 weeks after disinfection. Identification of the isolates was confirmed by HiMLST-Illumina analyses and will be typed to compare with clinical isolates. Conclusions: Initial in silico tests predict a high discriminating power of the HiMLST-Illumina method, suggesting that it would be possible to quickly identify strains of interest in a large number of samples. The power of this method is also in the possibility for molecular typing without a need for cultivation. Preliminary results suggest that sinks are readily colonized by opportunistic pathogens. This HiMLST-Illumina scheme will be applied in a 2-year intensive survey of NICUs in 3 hospitals in Montreal to evaluate the performance of new sink designs in limiting bioaerosol production and transmission of opportunistic pathogens to patients.
Background: Rotavirus is a leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants. Neonates hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are at risk of rotavirus infections with severe outcomes. The administration of rotavirus vaccines is only recommended, in the United States and Canada, upon discharge from the NICU despite rotavirus vaccine being proven safe and effective in these populations, due to risks of live-attenuated vaccine administration in immunocompromised patients and theoretical risks of rotavirus vaccines strains shedding and transmission. We summarized recent evidence regarding rotavirus vaccines administration in the NICU setting and safety of rotavirus vaccines in preterm infants. Methods: We conducted a rapid review of the literature from the past 10 years, searching Medline and Embase, including all study types except reviews, reporting on rotavirus vaccine 1 and rotavirus vaccine 5; NICU setting; shedding or transmission; and/or safety in preterm. One reviewer performed data extraction and quality assessment. Results: In total, 31 articles were analyzed. Vaccine-derived virus shedding following rotavirus vaccination existed for nearly all infants, mostly during the first week after dose 1, with rare transmission described only in the household setting. No case of transmission in the NICU was reported. Adverse events were mild to moderate, occurring in 10%–60% of vaccinated infants. Extreme premature infants or with underlying gastrointestinal failure requiring surgery presented more severe adverse events. Conclusions: Recommendations regarding rotavirus vaccine administration in the NICU should be reassessed in light of the relative safety and absence of transmission of rotavirus vaccine strains in the NICU.
Disclosures: Sicard Mélanie: I reference the use of rotavirus vaccines in the NICU setting, which is not recommended; I discuss possible reassessment of these recommendations.
Background: In 2019, a measles community outbreak resulted in a secondary case in a health care worker (HCW) working in a pediatric hospital in Montral, Canada. Following the event, HCWs were screened to identify individuals susceptible to measles infection based on serology results. Objective: Our aim was to assess measles seroprotection rates and to evaluate vaccine responses of susceptible HCWs using commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods: Emergency department (ED) employees, including doctors, were screened for measles susceptibility as part of a postoutbreak measure by the hospital occupational health service. Demographic information was collected. Measles history and vaccination information were collected using a personal vaccination booklet, employee vaccination profile, or the Qubec vaccination registry. According to the Quebec Immunization Protocol (PIQ), individuals born before 1970, or who have received 2 doses of a measles-containing vaccines are considered protected. Individuals with undetectable or equivocal antibody levels were considered at risk of measles infection. These individuals were offered vaccination and were tested for vaccine response 4 weeks after vaccination. Results: Anti-IgG measles antibody results, demographic information, and vaccination information were obtained for 257 employees. The results are currently available for 233 HCWs: 224 HCWs (96%) were seropositive, 7 (3%) were seronegative, and 2 were equivocal. Among seronegative individuals, 6 (85.7%) were born after 1980 and 3 (42.9%) had received 2 doses of a measles-containing vaccine. Of those with an equivocal result, 1 (50%) had received 2 doses and 1 (50%), born after 1970, did not confirm vaccination status. Finally, 9 (4%) of seropositive individuals were not vaccinated; of whom 8 (88.9%) were born before 1970. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that the 95% immunity threshold that is usually required to prevent secondary transmission of measles has been reached in our ED HCW cohort. Even years after the second MMR dose, HCWs remain well protected. Relying on documented vaccination status is thus acceptable.
To describe barriers and facilitators to the adoption of recommended infection prevention and control (IPC) practices among healthcare workers (HCWs).
A qualitative research design was used. Individual semistructured interviews with HCWs and observations of clinical practices were conducted from February to May 2018 in 8 care units of 2 large tertiary-care hospitals in Montreal (Québec, Canada).
We interviewed 13 managers, 4 nurses, 2 physicians, 3 housekeepers, and 2 medical laboratory technologists. We conducted 7 observations by following IPC nurses (n = 3), nurses (n = 2), or patient attendants (n = 2) in their work routines. Barriers to IPC adoption were related to the context of care, workplace environment issues, and communication issues. The main facilitator of the IPC adoption by HCWs was the “development of an IPC culture or safety culture.” The “IPC culture” relied upon leadership support by managers committed to IPC, shared belief in the importance of IPC measures to limit healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), collaboration and good communication among staff, as well as proactivity and ownership of IPC measures (ie, development of local solutions to reduce HAIs and “working together” toward common goals).
Adoption of recommended IPC measures by HCWs is strongly influenced by the “IPC culture.” The IPC culture was not uniform within hospital and differences in IPC culture were identified between care units.
Banked human milk (BHM) has inherent infectious risks, even when pasteurized. Because of the ubiquity of Bacillus cereus in the environment and its ability to resist the Holder pasteurization process, there is a concern that BHM might lead to severe B. cereus infections.
We reviewed observed and published cases to determine the potential causal role of BHM as the source of these infections.
Two infants in the province of Québec (Canada) developed a B. cereus neonatal infection, and both had received BHM. We conducted bacteriological studies to compare clinical isolates and those found in these cases.
After extended culture of BHM retention lots, B. cereus was found to have been involved in batches related to the first case. However, molecular typing showed that the strain was different from the clinical isolate, therefore excluding BHM as the source of contamination. In the second case, a Brevibacillus spp was isolated, a species distinct from the clinical isolate.
Based on these cases and others reported in the literature, a causal link between B. cereus contaminated BHM and preterm neonatal infection has never been documented. Therefore, the risk that BHM can cause this infection remains theoretical. Given the widespread presence of B. cereus in the hospital environment and its capacity to resist standard cleaning procedures, it seems likely that airborne or direct or indirect contact are the main sources of most, if not all, cases of severe B. cereus neonatal infections, even in babies exposed to BHM.
BACTOT, Quebec’s healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI) surveillance program has been operating since 2007. In this study, we evaluated the changes in HABSI rates across 10 years of BACTOT surveillance under a Bayesian framework.
A retrospective, cohort study of eligible hospitals having participated in BACTOT for at least 3 years, regardless of their entry date. Multilevel Poisson regressions were fitted independently for cases of HABSI, catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSIs), non–catheter-associated primary BSIs (NCA-BSIs), and BSIs secondary to urinary tract infections (BSI-UTIs) as the outcome and log of patient days as the offset. The log of the mean Poisson rate was decomposed as the sum of a surveillance year effect, period effect, and hospital effect. The main estimate of interest was the cohort-level rate in years 2–10 of surveillance relative to year 1.
Overall, 17,479 cases and 33,029,870 patient days were recorded for the cohort of 77 hospitals. The pooled 10-year HABSI rate was 5.20 per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 5.12–5.28). For HABSI, CA-BSI, and BSI-UTI, there was no difference between the estimated posterior rates of years 2–10 compared to year 1. The posterior means of the NCA-BSI rate ratios increased from the seventh year until the tenth year, when the rate was 29% (95% confidence interval, 1%–89%) higher than the first year rate.
HABSI rates and those of the most frequent subtypes remained stable over the surveillance period. To achieve reductions in incidence, we recommend that more effort be expended in active interventions against HABSI alongside surveillance.
We performed a molecular and epidemiologic study of a healthcare-associated rhinovirus outbreak to better understand transmission in neonatal intensive care settings. Sequencing of the 7 outbreak strains revealed 4 distinct clades, indicating multiple sources. A single clade infected 3 patients in adjacent rooms, suggesting horizontal transmission. We observed 1 rhinovirus-associated death.
Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HABSI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Québec, Canada, HABSI arising from acute-care hospitals have been monitored since April 2007 through the Surveillance des bactériémies nosocomiales panhospitalières (BACTOT) program, but this is the first detailed description of HABSI epidemiology.
This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted using BACTOT surveillance data from hospitals that participated continuously between April 1, 2007, and March 31, 2017. HABSI cases and rates were stratified by hospital type and/or infection source. Temporal trends of rates were analyzed by fitting generalized estimating equation Poisson models, and they were stratified by infection source.
For 40 hospitals, 13,024 HABSI cases and 23,313,959 patient days were recorded, for an overall rate of 5.59 per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 5.54–5.63). The most common infection sources were catheter-associated BSIs (23.0%), BSIs secondary to a urinary focus (21.5%), and non–catheter-associated primary BSIs (18.1%). Teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals with ICUs often had rates higher than nonteaching hospitals without ICUs. Annual HABSI rates did not exhibit statistically significant changes from year to year. Non–catheter-associated primary BSIs were the only HABSI type that exhibited a sustained change across the 10 years, increasing from 0.69 per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 0.59–0.80) in 2007–2008 to 1.42 per 10,000 patient days (95% CI, 1.27–1.58) in 2016–2017.
Despite ongoing surveillance, overall HABSI rates have not decreased. The effect of BACTOT participation should be more closely investigated, and targeted interventions along alternative surveillance modalities should be considered, prioritizing high-burden and potentially preventable BSI types.
We examined the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) guidelines in Québec adult hospitals from January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2015, by examining the incidence rate reduction (IRR) in healthcare-associated MRSA bloodstream infections (HA-MRSA), using central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) as a comparator.
In this study, we utilized a quasi-experimental design with Poisson segmented regression to model HA-MRSA and CLABSI incidence for successive 4-week surveillance segments, stratified by teaching status. We used 3 distinct periods with 2 break points (April 1, 2007, and January 3, 2010) corresponding to major MRSA guideline publications and updates.
Over the study period, HA-MRSA incidence decreased significantly in adult teaching facilities but not in nonteaching facilities. Prior to MRSA guideline publication (2006–2007), HA-MRSA incidence decrease was not significant (P=.89), while CLABSI incidence decreased by 4% per 4-week period (P=.05). After the publication of guidelines (2007–2009), HA-MRSA incidence decreased significantly by 1% (P=.04), while no significant decrease in CLABSI incidence was observed (P=.75). HA-MRSA and CLABSI decreases were both significant at 1% for 2010–2015 (P<.001 and P=.01, respectively). These decreases were gradual rather than sudden; break points were not significant. Teaching facilities drove these decreases.
During the study period, HA-MRSA and CLABSI rates decreased significantly. In 2007–2009, the significant decrease in HA-MRSA rates with stable CLABSI rates suggests an impact from MRSA-specific guidelines. In 2010–2015, significant and equal IRRs for HA-MRSA and CLABSI may be due to the continuing impact of MRSA guidelines, to the impact of new interventions targeting device-associated infections in general by the 2010–2015 Action Plan, or to a combination of factors.
Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. We aimed to determine whether intra-abdominal pathologies are an independent risk factor for CLABSI.
We performed a retrospective matched case–control study of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the Montreal Children’s Hospital (Montreal) and the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Canada. CLABSI cases that occurred between April 2009 and March 2014 were identified through local infection control databases. For each case, up to 3 controls were matched (National Healthcare Safety Network [NHSN] birth weight category, chronological age, and central venous catheter (CVC) dwell time at the time of CLABSI onset). Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression.
We identified 120 cases and 293 controls. According to a matched univariate analysis, the following variables were significant risk factors for CLABSI: active intra-abdominal pathology (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–6.4), abdominal surgery in the prior 7 days (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0–10.9); male sex (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.6) and ≥3 heel punctures (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.9–8.3). According to a multivariate matched analysis, intra-abdominal pathology (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.5–14.1), and ≥3 heel punctures (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.4–12.2) remained independent risk factors for CLABSI.
The presence of an active intra-abdominal pathology increased the risk of CLABSI by almost 6-fold. Similar to CLABSI in oncology patients, a subgroup of CLABSI with mucosal barrier injury should be considered for infants in the NICU with active intra-abdominal pathology.
Following implementation of bundled practices in 2009 in Quebec and Canadian intensive care units (ICUs), we describe CLABSI epidemiology during the last 8 years in the province of Québec (Canada) and compare rates with Canadian and American benchmarks.
CLABSI incidence rates (IRs) and central venous catheter utilization ratios (CVCURs) by year and ICU type were calculated using 2007–2014 data from the Surveillance Provinciale des Infections Nosocomiales (SPIN) program. Using American and Canadian surveillance data, we compared SPIN IRs to rates in other jurisdictions using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).
In total, 1,355 lab-confirmed CLABSIs over 911,205 central venous catheter days (CVC days) were recorded. The overall pooled incidence rate (IR) was 1.49 cases per 1,000 CVC days. IRs for adult teaching ICUs, nonteaching ICUs, neonatal ICUs (NICUs), and pediatric ICUs (PICUs) were 1.04, 0.91, 4.20, and 2.15 cases per 1,000 CVC days, respectively. Using fixed SPIN 2007–2009 benchmarks, CLABSI rates had decreased significantly in all ICUs except for PICUs by 2014. Rates declined by 55% in adult teaching ICUs, 52% in adult nonteaching ICUs, and 38% in NICUs. Using dynamic American and Canadian CLABSI rates as benchmarks, SPIN adult teaching ICU rates were significantly lower and adult nonteaching ICUs had lower or comparable rates, whereas NICU and PICU rates were higher.
Québec ICU CLABSI surveillance shows declining CLABSI rates in adult ICUs. The absence of a decrease in CLABSI rate in NICUs and PICUs highlights the need for continued surveillance and analysis of factors contributing to higher rates in these populations.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the detection of the toxin B gene are replacing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)–based toxin production detection or cell cytotoxicity assay in most laboratories.
To determine the proportion of pediatric patients diagnosed withClostridium difficile infection by PCR who would have also been diagnosed by ELISA and to compare the clinical characteristics of PCR+/ELISA+ vs PCR+/ELISA− patients.
Using the microbiology laboratory information system, stool samples positive for C. difficile by PCR between October 2010 and July 2014 were identified. Using frozen stool specimens, an ELISA for toxin A and B was performed. A retrospective medical chart review was conducted to obtain demographic and clinical data. Duplicate samples were excluded.
A total of 136 PCR-positive samples underwent ELISA testing: 54 (40%) were positive for toxin A or B. The mean (SD) age of the entire cohort was 8.5 (6.2) years. There was no difference in age, gender, clinical manifestation, previous medical problems, and management between patients positive or negative by ELISA. However, patients positive by ELISA were more likely to have had a recent exposure to antibiotics (67.9% vs 50%; crude odds ratio, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.03–4.28]).
In our pediatric population, 60% of patients with C. difficile diagnosed by PCR had no toxin detectable by ELISA. ELISA-negative patients were less likely to have received an antibiotic recently compared with ELISA-positive patients. These results highlight the need to standardize laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of C. difficile infections in children.