Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main aetiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Several outbreaks have been documented around the world, cementing its status as an emerging global public health concern. As a result, new strategies for the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of cerebral angiostrongyliasis are urgently needed. In this study, we report on the de novo assembly of the A. cantonensis transcriptome, its full functional annotation and a reconstruction of complete metabolic pathways. All results are available at AngiostrongylusDB (http://angiostrongylus.lad.pucrs.br/admin/welcome). The aim of this study was to identify the active genes and metabolic pathways involved in the mechanisms of infection and survival inside Rattus norvegicus. Among 389 metabolic mapped pathways, the blood coagulation/antithrombin pathways of heparan sulphate/heparin are highlighted. Moreover, we identified genes codified to GP63 (leishmanolysin), CALR (calreticulin), ACE (peptidyl-dipeptidase A), myoglobin and vWD (von Willebrand factor type D domain protein) involved in the infection invasion and survival of the parasite. The large dataset of functional annotations provided and the full-length transcripts identified in this research may facilitate future functional genomics studies and provides a basis for the development of new techniques for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cerebral angiostrongyliasis.