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In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
CyberKnife is the most advanced form of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) system that uses a robotic arm to deliver highly focused beams of radiation; however, a limitation is that it only irradiates from ceiling to floor direction. In patients with posterior lungs tumour who are positioned supine, normal lung tissue may suffer undesirable radiation injuries. This study compares the treatment planning between the prone set-up and the supine set-up for lung cancer in CyberKnife SBRT to decrease normal lung dose to avoid radiation side effects.
Materials and methods:
A human phantom was used to generate 108 plans (54 for prone and 54 for supine) using the CyberKnife planning platform. The supine and prone plans were compared in terms of the dosimetric characteristics, delivery efficiency and plan efficiency.
For posterior targets, the area of low-dose exposure to normal lungs was smaller in the prone set-up than in the supine set-up. V10 of the lungs was 7·53% and 10·47% (p < 0·001) in the anterior region, and 10·78% and 8·03% (p < 0·001) in the posterior region in the supine and prone set-up plans, respectively.
The comparison between the prone set-up and the supine set-up was investigated with regard to target coverage and dose to organs at risk. Our results may be deployed in CyberKnife treatment planning to monitor normal tissue dose by considering patient positioning. This may assist in the design of better treatment plans and prevention of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients.
Atrioventricular interval optimisation is important in patients with dual-chamber pacing, especially with heart failure. In patients with CHD, especially in those with Fontan circulation, the systemic atrial contraction is supposed to be more important than in patients without structural heart disease.
We retrospectively evaluated two patients after Fontan procedure with dual-chamber pacemaker with a unique setting of optimal sensed atrioventricular interval.
The optimal sensed atrioventricular interval determined by echocardiogram was extremely short sensed atrioventricular interval at 25 and 30 ms in both cases; however, the actual P wave and ventricular pacing interval showed 180 and 140 ms, respectively. In both cases, the atrial epicardial leads were implanted on the opposite site of the origin of their own atrial rhythm. The time differences between sensed atrioventricular interval and actual P wave and ventricular pacing interval occurred because of the site of the epicardial atrial pacing leads and the intra-atrial conduction delay.
We need to consider the origin of the atrial rhythm, the site of the epicardial atrial lead, and the atrial conduction delay by using electrocardiogram and X-ray when we set the optimal sensed atrioventricular interval in complicated CHD.
Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for anastomotic stenosis after coronary arterial bypass grafting using the internal thoracic artery in patients with coronary arterial lesions due to Kawasaki disease. Subjects and Methods: From July 1997 to April 2000, four boys and one girl underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for 6 anastomotic lesions following coronary arterial bypass grafting using the left or right internal thoracic artery. Progressive severe stenosis of the grafts in the follow-up angiograms after grafting, and evidence of ischemia, were regarded as indications for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Age at coronary angioplasty ranged from 4.2 to 16.7 years, with a median of 6.9 years, while the interval from operation ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 years, with a median of 1.1 years. The diameter of the balloon catheter employed varied from 1.5 to 2.5 mm, and the pressure of inflation ranged from 8 to 16 atmospheres. Results: The degree of stenosis decreased from 63 to 99%, with a median of 88%, to 0 to 40%, with a median of 17% immediately after angioplasty. A follow-up angiogram either 3 months or 1 year later revealed no restenosis in any patient. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a feasible and useful procedure for treating anastomotic stenosis following coronary arterial bypass grafting using the internal thoracic artery in patients with coronary arterial lesions due to Kawasaki disease.
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