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To evaluate the association of Composite Dietary Antioxidant Index (CDAI) and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) with the prevalence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
A cross-sectional study was conducted on women with abnormal Papanicolaou test, who underwent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) screening and histological test through colposcopy. Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and used to assess both CDAI and DII.
Women were recruited from 2012 to 2015 at the Cervical Cancer Screening Unit of the ‘Azienda Sanitaria Provinciale’ of Catania (Italy).
The study included 539 women with a mean age of 40·2 years, who were classified as cases (n 127 with CIN2 or more severe lesions) and controls (n 412 with normal cervical epithelium or CIN1).
Although we observed a lower proportion of HPV-positive women among those with higher CDAI (P < 0·001), the index was not associated with the diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesions. By contrast, women with medium or high DII showed higher odds to be diagnosed with CIN2 or more severe lesions than those with low DII (OR = 2·15; 95 % CI 1·11, 4·17; P = 0·024 and OR = 3·14; 95 % CI 1·50, 6·56; P = 0·002, respectively), after adjusting for age, HPV status, educational level, BMI, smoking status, parity, use of oral contraceptives and supplements.
Our findings suggested that a pro-inflammatory diet might be associated with an increased risk of CIN2 and more severe lesions. However, further prospective studies should be encouraged to support this evidence.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in CFTR gene. In Italy, reported prevalence is approximately .70 per 10,000 inhabitants (1). The practice and recommendations for Cystic Fibrosis carrier screening are very heterogeneous in Europe. A proposal of a carrier genetic test in the general population raises many questions. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) could offer a sound methodological basis for this evaluation. The aim of this work was to summarize the available evidence, using the HTA approach, on the genetic tests for Cystic Fibrosis carrier screening.
A systematic literature search was used to find the best available international and national evidence on genetics test for CF carrier screening. In this report, we specifically addressed the health problem of disease, description and technical characteristics of tests – its analytic and clinical validity, and clinical utility. Economic evaluation of different scenarios was synthesized from the literature. Ethical, organizational, and social aspects of CF and genetic screening were also considered.
Several screening strategies have been evaluated in the literature and screening options can be characterized by different timing, model and place of screening (2). The reported cost of a screening test ranged from EUR25 to EUR212 (3). Estimated life time cost of care for CF patients ranged from EUR291,048 to EUR1,105,452. Ethical analysis emphasized that the use of these tests is an advantage in terms of the acquisition of knowledge and of responsible management of choices, but at the same time raises many ethical questions. Social considerations reported among patients and their families an overall positive attitude toward population CF carrier screening.
The advances in the molecular genetics technology have made CF carrier testing reliable and affordable. The multidisciplinary approach of this HTA provided an evidence-based evaluation of genetic tests and offers a firm scientific background for the decision-makers to consider the implementation of a screening for Cystic Fibrosis carriers into the Italian health care system.
More than 10% of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) experience a severe, healthcare-associated infection, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) or bloodstream infection (BSI). What could be a public health target for prevention is hotly debated, because properly adjusting for intrinsic risk factors in the patient population is difficult. We aimed to estimate the proportion of ICU-acquired VAP and BSI cases that are amenable to prevention in routine conditions.
We analyzed routine data collected prospectively according to the European standard protocol for patient-based surveillance of healthcare-acquired infections in ICUs. We computed the number of infections to be expected if, after adjustment for case mix, the infection incidence in ICUs with higher infection rates could be reduced to that of the top-tenth-percentile-ranked ICU. Computations came from model-based simulation of individual patient profiles over time in the ICU. The preventable proportion was computed as the number of observed cases minus the number of expected cases divided by the number of observed cases.
Data for 78,222 patients admitted for more than 2 days to 525 ICUs in 6 European countries from 2005 to 2008 were available for analysis. We calculated that 52% of VAP and 69% of BSI was preventable.
Our pragmatic, if highly conservative, estimates quantify the potential for prevention of VAP and BSI in routine conditions, assuming that variation in infection incidence between ICUs can be eliminated with improved quality of care, apart from variation attributable to differential case mix.
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