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This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
Humans disturb bears in many ways, either directly when they encounter humans or indirectly by changing their behavior and way of life to avoid humans, human activity, and infrastructure. Here we summarize research on how brown bears normally react when encountering humans, what a human encounter may entail for a bear, and whether bears habituate or change their behavior toward humans with increased exposure. Based on this, we also discuss: (a) how our knowledge of brown bear behavior may help people to deal with their fear of bears, and not limit their use of outdoor areas with bears; (b) how human presence, activity, and infrastructure have an indirect effect on bears, that is, how bears change their movement pattern, use of terrain and vegetation, and daily activity pattern to avoid humans; (c) how human disturbance influence foraging and denning, which is crucial for brown bear growth and reproduction; and (d) apparent differences among continents in brown bear behavior toward humans and whether this may have an evolutionary cause.
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