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To support safe prescribing of antipsychotics in dementia, antipsychotic monitoring forms were embedded into our electronic health records. We present a review of the data collected on these forms to assess prescribing and identify areas for improvement in our practice and processes. Data were extracted from the structured fields of antipsychotic initiation and review forms completed between 1 January 2018 and 31 January 2020.
We identified gaps in practice where improvements could be made, mainly with regard to physical health monitoring (and particularly electrocardiograms, performed in only 50% of patients) and the low (less than 50%) recorded use of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. In addition, antipsychotic treatment was continued despite lack of benefit in almost 10% of reviews.
We advocate for recommendations on physical health monitoring of people with dementia taking antipsychotics to be added to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on dementia and the Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health (POMH-UK) national audit.
Primary health care provision in terms of quality, equity, and costs are different by countries. The Quality and Costs of Primary Care (QUALICOPC) study evaluated these domains and parameters in 35 countries, using uniformized method with validated questionnaires filled out by family physicians/general practitioners (GPs).
This paper aims to provide data of the Hungarian-arm of the QUALICOPC study and to give an overview about the recent Hungarian primary care (PC) system.
The questionnaires were completed in 222 Hungarian GP practices, delivered by fieldworkers, in a geographically representative distribution. Descriptive analysis was performed on the data.
Financing is based mostly on capitation, with additional compensatory elements and minor financial incentives. The gate-keeping function is weak. The communication between GPs and specialists is often insufficient. The number of available devices and equipment are appropriate. Single-handed practices are predominant. Appointment instead of queuing is a new option and is becoming more popular, mainly among better-educated and urban patients. GPs are involved in the management of almost all chronic condition of all generations. Despite the burden of administrative tasks, half of the GPs estimate their job as still interesting, burn-out symptoms were rarely found. Among the evaluated process indicators, access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and coordination were rated as satisfactory, together with equity among health outcome indicators. Financing is insufficient; therefore, many GPs are involved in additional income-generating activities. The old age of the GPs and the lack of the younger GPs generation contributes to a shortage in manpower. Cooperation and communication between different levels of health care provision should be improved, focusing better on community orientation and on preventive services. Financing needs continuous improvement and appropriate incentives should be implemented. There is a need for specific PC-oriented guidelines to define properly the tasks and competences of GPs.
Observational studies suggest that hormonal contraceptive use may increase depressive symptoms in women, but it is unclear whether the effect is causal.
To quantitatively examine the evidence from randomised clinical trials for the link between hormonal contraceptive use and depressive symptoms.
We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing women randomised to any form of a hormonal contraceptive with women randomised to any other form of a (non-)hormonal contraceptive or placebo. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, EMCare and EMBASE, from inception to 1 May 2020. Certainty of the evidence was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. A random-effect Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted, with change in depressive symptoms between baseline and three cycles as outcome.
This review identified 3492 records, of which 14 trials were eligible and 12 could be included in the network meta-analysis. These trials included 5833 participants (mean age per study range: 16.8–32.4 years) and compared 10 different interventions. Compared with placebo, hormonal contraceptive use did not cause worsening of depressive symptoms (standardised mean difference: median, −0.04; range, −0.17 [95% credible interval −0.46 to 0.13] to 0.13 [95% credible interval −0.28 to 0.56]).
This study suggests that hormonal contraceptive use does not lead to an increase in depressive symptoms in adult women. Future studies should include first-time users, to confirm the results in young women.
The study aimed to monitor parasite and host gene expression during the early stages of Eimeria tenella infection of chicken cells using dual RNA-Seq analysis. For this, we used chicken macrophage-like cell line HD11 cultures infected in vitro with purified E. tenella sporozoites. Cultures were harvested between 2 and 72 h post-infection and mRNA was extracted and sequenced. Dual RNA-Seq analysis showed clear patterns of altered expression for both parasite and host genes during infection. For example, genes in the chicken immune system showed upregulation early (2–4 h), a strong downregulation of genes across the immune system at 24 h and a repetition of early patterns at 72 h, indicating that invasion by a second generation of parasites was occurring. The observed downregulation may be due to immune self-regulation or to immune evasive mechanisms exerted by E. tenella. Results also suggested pathogen recognition receptors involved in E. tenella innate recognition, MRC2, TLR15 and NLRC5 and showed distinct chemokine and cytokine induction patterns. Moreover, the expression of several functional categories of Eimeria genes, such as rhoptry kinase genes and microneme genes, were also examined, showing distinctive differences which were expressed in sporozoites and merozoites.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE).
The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8–40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses.
When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10).
We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.
Prenatal choline is a key nutrient, like folic acid and vitamin D, for fetal brain development and subsequent mental function. We sought to determine whether effects of higher maternal plasma choline concentrations on childhood attention and social problems, found in an initial clinical trial of choline supplementation, are observed in a second cohort.
Of 183 mothers enrolled from an urban safety net hospital clinic, 162 complied with gestational assessments and brought their newborns for study at 1 month of age; 83 continued assessments through 4 years of age. Effects of maternal 16 weeks of gestation plasma choline concentrations ⩾7.07 μM, 1 s.d. below the mean level obtained with supplementation in the previous trial, were compared to lower levels. The Attention Problems and Withdrawn Syndrome scales on Child Behavior Checklist 1½–5 were the principal outcomes.
Higher maternal plasma choline was associated with lower mean Attention Problems percentiles in children, and for male children, with lower Withdrawn percentiles. Higher plasma choline concentrations also reduced Attention Problems percentiles for children of mothers who used cannabis during gestation as well as children of mothers who had gestational infection.
Prenatal choline's positive associations with early childhood behaviors are found in a second, more diverse cohort. Increases in attention problems and social withdrawal in early childhood are associated with later mental illnesses including attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia. Choline concentrations in the pregnant women in this study replicate other research findings suggesting that most pregnant women do not have adequate choline in their diets.
In March 2020, academic medical center (AMC) pharmacies were compelled to implement practice changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These changes were described by survey data collected by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program which were interpreted by a multi-institutional team of AMC pharmacists and physician investigators.
The CTSA program surveyed 60 AMC pharmacy departments. The survey included event timing, impact on pharmacy services, and corrective actions taken.
Almost all departments (98.4%) reported at least one disruption. Shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) were common (91.5%) as were drug shortages (66.0%). To manage drug shortages, drug prioritization protocols were utilized, new drug supply vendors were identified (79.3%), and onsite compounding was initiated. PPE shortages were managed by incorporating the risk mitigation strategies recommended by FDA and others. Research pharmacists supported new clinical research initiatives at most institutions (84.0%), introduced use of virtual site visits, and shipped investigational drugs directly to patients. Some pharmacies formulated novel investigational products for clinical trial use. Those AMC pharmacies within networked health systems assisted partner rural and inner-city hospitals by sourcing commercial and investigational drugs to alleviate local disease outbreaks and shortages in underserved populations. Pharmacy-based vaccination practice was expanded to include a wider range of pediatric and adult vaccines.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically altered hospital pharmacy practice. By adopting innovative methods and adapting to regulatory imperatives, pharmacies at CTSA sites played an extremely important role supporting continuity of care and collaborating on critical clinical research initiatives.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
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Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) and psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur. Although each has been associated with negative outcomes, their combined effect has rarely been studied.
To examine the likelihood of five negative health and healthcare outcomes for adults with IDD and mental health/addiction disorders (MHAs), both separately and together. For each outcome, demographic, clinical and system-level factors were also examined.
Linked administrative data-sets were used to identify adults in Ontario, Canada, with IDD and MHA (n = 29 476), IDD-only (n = 35 223) and MHA-only (n = 727 591). Five outcomes (30-day readmission, 30-day repeat ED visit, delayed discharge, long-term care admission and premature mortality) were examined by logistic regression models with generalised estimating equation or survival analyses. For each outcome, crude (disorder groups only) and complete (adding biosocial covariates) models were run using a general population reference group.
The IDD and MHA group had the highest proportions across outcomes for both crude and complete models. They had the highest adjusted ratios for readmissions (aOR 1.93, 95%CI 1.88–1.99), repeat ED visit (aOR 2.00, 95%CI 1.98–2.02) and long-term care admission (aHR 12.19, 95%CI 10.84–13.71). For delayed discharge, the IDD and MHA and IDD-only groups had similar results (aOR 2.00 (95%CI 1.90–2.11) and 2.21 (95%CI 2.07–2.36). For premature mortality, the adjusted ratios were similar for all groups.
Poorer outcomes for adults with IDD, particularly those with MHA, suggest a need for a comprehensive, system-wide approach spanning health, disability and social support.
Perinatal mental illnesses are a major public health issue, which untreated can have devastating impacts on women and their families. Problems with emotion regulation are a common feature across perinatal mental illnesses.
This study sought to evaluate the impacts of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) skills groups for mothers and babies in a community perinatal service. We hypothesised that community perinatal DBT skills groups that included babies would reduce distress and improve emotional regulation.
A mixed-methods within-subjects design was utilised with outcome measures collected pre- and post-intervention. Qualitative interviews exploring mothers’ experiences of bringing their baby to group were also conducted.
Results indicated that DBT skills groups significantly improved levels of psychological distress and emotional regulation.
Community perinatal DBT skills groups are effective when babies are present. Moreover, benefits of including babies were identified, under the themes of Self as Mother, Shared Experience, and Impact of Babies.
Background: Measles is a highly contagious virus that reemerged in 2019 with the highest number of reported cases in the United States since 1992. Beginning in March 2019, The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) responded to an influx of patients with concern for measles as a result of outbreaks in Maryland and the surrounding states. We report the JHH Department of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (HEIC) response to this measles outbreak using a multidisciplinary measles incident command system (ICS). Methods: The JHH HEIC and the Johns Hopkins Office of Emergency Management established the HEIC Clinical Incident Command Center and coordinated a multipronged response to the measles outbreak with partners from occupational health services, microbiology, the adult and pediatric emergency departments, marketing and communication and local and state public health departments. The multidisciplinary structure rapidly developed, approved, and disseminated tools to improve the ability of frontline providers to quickly identify, isolate, and determine testing needs for patients suspected to have measles infection and reduce the risk of secondary transmission. The tools included a triage algorithm, visitor signage, staff and patient vaccination guidance and clinics, and standard operating procedures for measles evaluation and testing. The triage algorithms were developed for phone or in-person and assessed measles exposure history, immune status, and symptoms, and provided guidance regarding isolation and the need for testing. The algorithms were distributed to frontline providers in clinics and emergency rooms across the Johns Hopkins Health System. The incident command team also distributed resources to community providers to reduce patient influx to JHH and staged an outdoor measles evaluation and testing site in the event of a case influx that would exceed emergency department resources. Results: From March 2019 through June 2019, 37 patients presented with symptoms or concern for measles. Using the ICS tools and algorithms, JHH rapidly identified, isolated, and tested 11 patients with high suspicion for measles, 4 of whom were confirmed positive. Of the other 26 patients not tested, none developed measles infection. Exposures were minimized, and there were no secondary measles transmissions among patients. Conclusions: Using the ICS and development of tools and resources to prevent measles transmission, including a patient triage algorithm, the JHH team successfully identified, isolated, and evaluated patients with high suspicion for measles while minimizing exposures and secondary transmission. These strategies may be useful to other institutions and locales in the event of an emerging or reemerging infectious disease outbreak.
Disclosures: Aaron Milstone reports consulting for Becton Dickinson.
Background: Outpatients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often treated empirically without culture, whereas urine cultures are typically collected from patients with complicated UTI. Susceptibilities for fosfomycin (a first-line agent) are not routinely performed or reported in the antibiogram. Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistance for UTI is critical for empiric treatment and antibiotic stewardship in primary care. Methods: We developed a UTI-focused antibiogram from a prospective sample of outpatients (women and men) with UTIs from 2 public family medicine clinics in an urban area with a diverse, international population (November 2018 to present). During the study period, providers ordered a urine culture for any adult patient presenting with UTI symptoms, including uncomplicated and complicated infections. We estimated the prevalence of resistance to UTI-relevant antibiotics in the overall study population and compared it between patients born in the United States and other countries. Results: We collected 678 urine cultures from 644 unique patients (79% female). Of these cultures, 158 (23.3%) had no growth, 330 (48.7%) grew mixed urogenital flora, and 190 (28.0%) were positive (>10,000 CFU/mL). Patients with positive cultures were mostly female (88.2%), and their mean age was 46.6 ± 14.8 years. Among patients with positive cultures, 42.7% were born in the United States and 57.3% were born Mexico or Central America. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism (Fig. 1). Susceptibility results for E. coli and all gram-negative organisms combined are presented in Fig. 2. Susceptibility of uropathogens to TMP-SMX was significantly higher in patients born in the United States compared to patients from Mexico or Central America (82% vs 61%; P = .03). Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was similar in patients born in the United States and other countries (79% vs 72%; P = .50). Of 77 E. coli isolates, 11 (14%) were positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamase production, including 8 isolates from patients whose country of origin was Mexico or a Central American country. Conclusions: More than 20% of outpatients presenting with UTI symptoms had a negative urine culture. Among outpatients with uncomplicated and complicated UTI, uropathogens had a high prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and TMP-SMX, but susceptibility to fosfomycin (restricted in our system) was 100%. Resistance rates for TMP-SMX were higher in patients from Mexico and Central America. Our findings question whether TMP-SMX should remain a first-line agent in US primary-care settings.
Funding: This project was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number UM1AI104681.
Responsive behaviours in dementia are associated with poor outcomes for the person with dementia (PWD) and caregiver burnout. Family caregivers need a variety of tools to manage responsive behaviours. The Baycrest Quick-Response Caregiver Tool was developed to provide caregivers with a tool that can be used in real time. In this study, the feasibility, impact, and effectiveness of this new tool were studied in family caregivers and health care providers (HCP) using quantitative and qualitative measures.
Family caregivers were recruited and were asked to complete a pre-survey before being sent the link to the educational tool. One month after the telephone survey, caregivers were sent an online post-survey to gather their feedback on the tool and the impact of the tool on caregiver well -being. Healthcare providers were also recruited and reviewed the tool through an online feedback survey. The feasibility, impact, and effectiveness of the tool were assessed using quantitative and qualitative measures.
Caregivers had a moderate degree of and reported a high level of competence - these scores were maintained throughout the study. Caregivers reported that tool positively impacted their compassion towards the person with dementia (PWD), and that their interactions with improved. 100% of HCP who completed the feedback survey would recommend the tool to other HCP and to caregivers of PWD. The caregivers and HCP provided specific suggestions for improvement.
The Baycrest Quick-Response Caregiver Tool was found to be feasible and helpful. It provides caregivers and HCP with an additional approach for responsive behaviours.
Diagnosis and classification for mental disorder are in flux. This transition has downstream consequences on the nature of clinical assessment in research and treatment settings. We begin this chapter by describing the prevailing categorical rubrics, which are the predominant guide to clinical assessment worldwide. These systems, despite their popularity, suffer from serious defects, which have prompted the development of alternate frameworks for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathology. We focus the remainder of the chapter on two prominent contenders to supplement, and perhaps eventually supplant, traditional categorical models. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology is an empirically derived system of the phenotypic dimensions of psychopathology and the Research Domain Criteria represent a biologically oriented approach to understanding risk processes implicated in mental disorder. We describe the promise and challenges facing these two emerging systems, and we speculate about how they will shape the future of clinical assessment.